University of Oulu

Pablo Piñero, David Pérez-Neira, Juan Infante-Amate, María L. Chas-Amil, Xoán R. Doldán-García, Unequal raw material exchange between and within countries: Galicia (NW Spain) as a core-periphery economy, Ecological Economics, Volume 172, 2020, 106621, ISSN 0921-8009,

Unequal raw material exchange between and within countries : Galicia (NW Spain) as a core-periphery economy

Saved in:
Author: Piñero, Pablo1; Pérez-Neira, David2; Infante-Amate, Juan3;
Organizations: 1Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Economics and Statistics, University of León, León, Spain
3Department of Geography, History and Philosophy, University Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla, Spain
4Department of Quantitative Economics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
5Department of Applied Economics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.3 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2022-03-03


A global multi-regional input-output model with sub-national resolution for Galicia, north-west Spain, was used to study physical and value added trade balances between Galicia, the rest of Spain and the world. Within the framework of Ecologically Unequal Exchange theory, we argue that a region, such as Galicia, can play a twofold role as core and periphery in the global division of extractive activities. We show that Galicia is a sink, i.e. net importer of natural resources from middle- and low-income economies, and that the lower the income of the trade partner, the more raw material intensive the imports (measured as upstream kg per USD imported value added). However, this physical deficit is less accentuated than for the rest of Spain and Galicia’s material footprint is significantly lower (~14.2 compared with ~24.5 t/capita). Moreover, Galicia is a source, i.e. net exporter of raw materials compared with more thriving European Union economies and, even for some key trade partners, such as Germany, UK and the rest of Spain, it is a net importer of value added.

see all

Series: Ecological economics. The transdisciplinary journal of the International Society for Ecological Economics
ISSN: 0921-8009
ISSN-E: 1873-6106
ISSN-L: 0921-8009
Volume: 172
Article number: 106621
DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106621
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 511 Economics
Funding: PP thanks the University of Oulu Graduate School for support during his PhD studies. MLCA and XRDG acknowledge financial support from the Xunta de Galicia (2018-PU012).
Copyright information: © 2020 2020 Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license