University of Oulu

Herrala, M., Mikkonen, J., Pesonen, P., Lappalainen, R., Tjäderhane, L., Niemelä, R., Seitsalo, H., Salo, T., Myllymaa, S., Kullaa, A. (2021) Variability of salivary metabolite levels in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome. Journal of oral science, 63(1), 22-26.

Variability of salivary metabolite levels in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome

Saved in:
Author: Herrala, Maria1,2,3; Mikkonen, Jopi J. W.4; Pesonen, Paula5;
Organizations: 1Research Group of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital
2Institute of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland
3Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu and Oulu University Hospital
4SIB Labs and Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland
5Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu
6Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital
7Department of Rheumatology, Oulu University Hospital
8Private practice
9Educational Dental Clinic, Kuopio University Hospital
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Nihon University School of Dentistry, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-01-07


Purpose: To investigate inter- and intra-individual variation in the levels and outputs (concentration multiplied by salivary flow rate) of salivary metabolites in patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS).

Methods: A total of 56 samples of stimulated saliva were collected from 14 female pSS patients during four laboratory visits within 20 weeks and analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Single saliva samples from each of 15 controls were also analyzed.

Results: Among 21 quantified metabolites, choline was significantly elevated in the pSS patients at each time point (P ≤ 0.015), taurine at the last three time points (P ≤ 0.013), alanine at the last two time points (P ≤ 0.007) and glycine at the last time point (P = 0.005). Inter-individual variation in metabolite concentrations was generally larger among the patients than among the controls, and significantly large variations were observed for glycine (P ≤ 0.007, all time points), choline (P ≤ 0.033, three last time points) and alanine (P = 0.028, baseline). Metabolite output analysis showed that choline had the lowest intra-patient variation.

Conclusions: In spite of considerable intra- and inter-individual variation, levels and outputs of specific metabolites in patients with pSS differ from those in controls, and may be potentially applicable as new biological markers for monitoring of the response to treatment.

see all

Series: Journal of oral science
ISSN: 1343-4934
ISSN-E: 1880-4926
ISSN-L: 1343-4934
Volume: 63
Issue: 1
Pages: 22 - 26
DOI: 10.2334/josnusd.19-0504
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: This work was partly supported by the Finnish Funding Agency’s for Technology and Innovation (Tekes) Oraldent (2186/31/2010) and Oral Cancer (52/31/2014) projects. MH has received a grant from the Finnish Dental Association Apollonia.
Copyright information: © 2021 by Nihon University School of Dentistry. The final authenticated version is available online at