University of Oulu

Joonas Ilmola, Aarne Pohjonen, Sami Koskenniska, Oskari Seppälä, Olli Leinonen, Juha Jokisaari, Juha Pyykkönen, Jari Larkiola, Coupled heat transfer and phase transformations of dual-phase steel in coil cooling, Materials Today Communications, Volume 26, 2021, 101973, ISSN 2352-4928,

Coupled heat transfer and phase transformations of dual-phase steel in coil cooling

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Author: Ilmola, Joonas1; Pohjonen, Aarne1; Koskenniska, Sami1;
Organizations: 1Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, FI-90014, Finland
2SSAB Europe, Raahe Mill, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 10.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-01-18


Dual-phase steels are generally used in the car industry due to high tensile strength and good formability, which are obtained by a mixture of bainite and ferrite phases. This microstructure is achieved through slow rate coil cooling. However, the manufacturing of dual-phase steels introduces various challenges such as the instability of the cold rolling process. An important factor affecting this is the non-uniform coil cooling of a hot rolled strip. In coil cooling the cooling rates are not controlled and there are different thermal contacts during coil conveyance causing unequal cooling of the steel coil. Unequal cooling rates lead to non-uniform coil cooling, producing irregular phase transformations on different sides of the coil, which causes periodical variations of the phase fractions in the steel strip. Varying phase fractions cause thickness deviations in the strip during the cold rolling process. A three-dimensional transient heat transfer finite element model was developed and used for modeling the complete coil conveyance chain and coil field cooling of the coil on an industrial scale. A coupled phase transformation model is implemented as a subroutine into the finite element model for calculating the resulting phase fractions. It was found that the different thermal contacts during the coil conveyance produce uneven cooling rates causing length- and widthwise variations in the phase fractions. The heat transfer model is validated by comparing temperature profiles between the simulated and measured coil edges. The phase transformation model is fitted into experimental data and verification is carried out in industrial conditions by comparing the modeled phase fractions and test samples from a cooled and unwound steel coil.

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Series: Materials today communications
ISSN: 2352-4928
ISSN-E: 2352-4928
ISSN-L: 2352-4928
Volume: 26
Article number: 101973
DOI: 10.1016/j.mtcomm.2020.101973
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: This research is conducted with funding and co-operation from SSAB Europe and Business Finland in cooperation projects FLEX and AMET.
Copyright information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (