University of Oulu

Mueller, M., Peltonen, P., Eilu, P. et al. The Mustajärvi orogenic gold occurrence, Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, Finland: a telluride-dominant mineral system. Miner Deposita 55, 1625–1646 (2020).

The Mustajärvi orogenic gold occurrence, Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, Finland : a telluride-dominant mineral system

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Author: Mueller, Matthias1,2; Peltonen, Petri2,3; Eilu, Pasi4;
Organizations: 1Oulu Mining School, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
2FireFox Gold Corp., Suite 650, 1021 West Hastings Street, Vancouver, Canada
3Department of Geosciences and Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland
4Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box 96, FI-02151, Espoo, Finland
5School of Earth Science and Resources, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing, 100083, China
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 10.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-01-19


The Mustajärvi gold occurrence lies in the southern part of the Paleoproterozoic Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, in proximity to the first-order transcrustal Venejoki thrust fault system. The gold occurrence is structurally controlled by the second-order Mustajärvi shear zone, which is located at the contact between siliciclastic metasedimentary and mafic to ultramafic metavolcanic rocks. The main mineralization comprises a set of parallel veins and sulfidized rocks that are slightly oblique to the shear zone and are hosted by third-order structures likely representing Riedel R-type shears. The gold-mineralized rock at Mustajärvi is associated with pyrite that is present in 0.15- to 1-m-wide quartz-pyrite-tourmaline veins and in zones of massive pyrite in the host rocks with thicknesses ranging from 1.15 to 2 m. In unweathered rock, hypogene gold is hosted by Au- and Au-Bi-telluride micro-inclusions in pyrite, whereas strong weathering at near surface levels has caused a remobilization of gold, resulting in free gold deposited mainly in the cracks of oxidized pyrite. The geochemistry of both mineralization styles is typical of orogenic gold systems with strong enrichments comprising Au, B, Bi, CO₂, Te, and Se; and less consistent anomalous amounts of Ag, As, Sb, and W. Unusual for orogenic gold deposits is the strong enrichment of Ni and Co, which leads to the classification of Mustajärvi as orogenic gold occurrence with atypical metal association.

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Series: Mineralium deposita
ISSN: 0026-4598
ISSN-E: 1432-1866
ISSN-L: 0026-4598
Volume: 55
Issue: 8
Pages: 1625 - 1646
DOI: 10.1007/s00126-020-00990-w
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1171 Geosciences
Funding: Juhani Ojala and the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) are thanked for supporting this research and for providing partial funding. Also, the University of Oulu is thanked for providing funding and infrastructure for this study. Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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