University of Oulu

J. Partala, T. H. Nguyen and S. Pirttikangas, "Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge for Blockchain: A Survey," in IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 227945-227961, 2020, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3046025

Non-interactive zero-knowledge for blockchain : a survey

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Author: Partala, Juha1; Nguyen, Tri Hong2; Pirttikangas, Susanna2
Organizations: 1Center for Machine Vision and Signal Analysis, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-01-21


We survey the state-of-the-art non-interactive zero-knowledge argument schemes and their applications in confidential transactions and private smart contracts on blockchain. The main goal of this paper is to serve as a reference for blockchain application developers in finding the most suitable scheme for a particular use case. We give an overview and compare the state-of-the-art protocols for confidential transactions and private smart contracts regarding the protection of the transaction graph and amounts, data and functionality. However, our main focus is on state-of-the-art zero-knowledge argument schemes. We briefly describe their backgrounds, proof lengths and computational complexities and discuss their cryptographic security models. Our focus is on seminal, otherwise notable and, especially, implemented methods that are ready to be applied in practice. We also survey the existing implementations of transforming computations into circuit representations required by those methods. We note that the existing schemes have different strengths and drawbacks regarding usability, setup, proof length and proving and verification costs.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 8
Pages: 227945 - 227961
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3046025
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by a strategic research project called ``Personalization, Privacy and Quality Control for MaaS with Blockchain - TrustedMaaS'' through the focus institute Infotech Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (ITEE), University of Oulu, Finland, and in part by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2020. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see