University of Oulu

I.S.M. van der Wurff, C. von Schacky, T. Bergeland, R. Leontjevas, M.P. Zeegers, P.A. Kirschner, R.H.M. de Groot, Effect of one year krill oil supplementation on depressive symptoms and self-esteem of Dutch adolescents: A randomized controlled trial, Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, Volume 163, 2020, 102208, ISSN 0952-3278,

Effect of one year krill oil supplementation on depressive symptoms and self-esteem of Dutch adolescents : a randomized controlled trial

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Author: van der Wurff, I. S. M.1; von Schacky, C.2,3; Bergeland, T.4;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Educational Sciences, Open University of the Netherlands, the Netherlands, Heerlen 6419 AT, the Netherlands
2Omegametrix, Martinsried 82 152, Germany
3Preventive Cardiology, Medical Clinic and Poli-Clinic I, Ludwig Maximilians-University Munich, 80336 Munich, Germany
4Aker BioMarine Antarctic AS, Lysaker NO-1327, Norway (former)
5Faculty of Psychology, Open University of the Netherlands, 6419 AT Heerlen, The Netherlands
6Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (School NUTRIM), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
7Care and Public Health Research Institute (School CAPHRI), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
8Expertise Centre for Effective Learning, Thomas More University of Applied Sciences, Mechelen, Belgium
9University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-01-22


Introduction: Observational studies have shown a relationship between omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) and depression in adolescents. However, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation studies investigating the potential improvement in depressive feelings in adolescents from the general population are missing.

Methods: A one-year double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial was conducted in two cohorts. Cohort I started with 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or placebo, after three months this increased to 800 mg EPA and DHA per day, whilst cohort II started with this higher dose. Omega-3 Index (O3I) was monitored via finger-prick blood measurements. At baseline, six and 12 months participants completed the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem questionnaire (RSE). Adjusted mixed models were run with treatment allocation/O3I as predictor of CES-D and RSE scores.

Results: Both intention-to-treat and assessing the change in O3I analyses did not show significant effects on CES-D or RSE scores.

Conclusion: There is no evidence for less depressive feelings, or higher self-esteem after one year of krill oil supplementation. However, due to a lack of adherence and drop-out issues, these results should be interpreted with caution.

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Series: Prostaglandins, leukotrienes & essential fatty acids
ISSN: 0952-3278
ISSN-E: 1532-2823
ISSN-L: 0952-3278
Volume: 163
Article number: 102208
DOI: 10.1016/j.plefa.2020.102208
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3141 Health care science
Funding: The study is funded by the grant Food, Cognition and Behaviour from the Dutch Scientific Organisation (grant number 057–13–002), Aker Biomarine (Norway) who provided the krill and placebo capsules, and Omegametrix (Germany) who was responsible for the blood analyses.
Copyright information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (