University of Oulu

Rajaniemi, K.; Hu, T.; Nurmesniemi, E.-T.; Tuomikoski, S.; Lassi, U. Phosphate and Ammonium Removal from Water through Electrochemical and Chemical Precipitation of Struvite. Processes 2021, 9, 150.

Phosphate and ammonium removal from water through electrochemical and chemical precipitation of struvite

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Author: Rajaniemi, Kyösti1; Hu, Tao1; Nurmesniemi, Emma-Tuulia1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-01-25


Batch electrocoagulation (BEC), continuous electrocoagulation (CEC), and chemical precipitation (CP) were compared in struvite (MgNH₄PO₄·6H₂O) precipitation from synthetic and authentic water. In synthetic water treatment (SWT), struvite yield was in BEC 1.72, CEC 0.61, and CP 1.54 kg/m³. Corresponding values in authentic water treatment (AWT) were 2.55, 3.04, and 2.47 kg/m³. In SWT, 1 kg struvite costs in BEC, CEC, and CP were 0.55, 0.55, and 0.11 €, respectively, for AWT 0.35, 0.22 and 0.07 €. Phosphate removal in SWT was 93.6, 74.5, and 71.6% in BEC, CEC, and CP, respectively, the corresponding rates in AWT were 89.7, 77.8, and 74.4%. Ammonium removal for SWT in BEC, CEC, and CP were 79.4, 51.5, and 62.5%, respectively, rates in AWT 56.1, 64.1, and 60.9%. Efficiency in CEC and BEC are equal in nutrient recovery in SWT, although energy efficiency was better in CEC. CP is cheaper than BEC and CEC.

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Series: Processes
ISSN: 2227-9717
ISSN-E: 2227-9717
ISSN-L: 2227-9717
Volume: 9
Issue: 1
Article number: 150
DOI: 10.3390/pr9010150
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: Kyösti Rajaniemi acknowledges the funding support extended by Erkki Paasikivi Foundation, Kerttu Saalasti Foundation, Maa- ja Vesitekniikan tuki ry and Tauno Tönning Foundation. This work was conducted under the auspices of the Waterpro (ERDF project number: A74635, funded by the European Union, European Regional Development Fund, Leverage from the EU Central and Ostrobothnia Regional Council) and the project “Reaching congenial region through valorization of municipal and industrial wastewaters and sludge” (Waste Recycling, KA4020) funded by the Karelia CBC Program.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (