University of Oulu

Nikulin, J., Vidgren, V., Krogerus, K. et al. Brewing potential of the wild yeast species Saccharomyces paradoxus. Eur Food Res Technol 246, 2283–2297 (2020).

Brewing potential of the wild yeast species Saccharomyces paradoxus

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Author: Nikulin, Jarkko1,2; Vidgren, Virve1; Krogerus, Kristoffer1;
Organizations: 1VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Tietotie 2, P.O. Box 1000, 02044, Espoo, Finland
2Chemical Process Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
3Sinebrychoff Supply Company, Part of the Carlsberg Group, P.O. Box 87, 04201, Kerava, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-01-25


Saccharomyces paradoxus is commonly isolated from environmental samples in Northern Europe and North America, but is rarely found associated with fermentation. However, as novelty has become a selling point in beer markets, interest toward non-conventional and local yeasts is increasing. Here, we report the first comprehensive investigation of the brewing potential of the species. Eight wild strains of S. paradoxus were isolated from oak trees growing naturally in Finland, screened in a series of fermentation trials and the most promising strain was selected for lager beer brewing at pilot scale (40 l). Yeasts were evaluated according to their ability to utilize wort sugars, their production of flavour-active aroma volatiles, diacetyl and organic acids, and sensorial quality of beers produced. All strains could assimilate maltose but this occurred after a considerable lag phase. Once adapted, most wild strains reached attenuation rates close to 70%. Adaptation to maltose could be maintained by re-pitching and with appropriate handling of the adapted yeast. Fermentation at 15 °C with the best performing strain was completed in 17 days. Maltose was consumed as efficiently as with a reference lager yeast, but no maltotriose use was observed. Bottled beers were evaluated by a trained sensory panel, and were generally rated as good as, or better than, reference beers. S. paradoxus beers were considered full-bodied and had a relatively clean flavour profile despite the presence of the clove-like 4-vinyl guaiacol. In conclusion, S. paradoxus exhibits a number of traits relevant to brewing, and with appropriate handling could be applied industrially.

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Series: European food research and technology
ISSN: 1438-2377
ISSN-E: 1438-2385
ISSN-L: 1438-2377
Volume: 246
Issue: 11
Pages: 2283 - 2297
DOI: 10.1007/s00217-020-03572-2
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: Open access funding provided by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). This work was supported by PBL Brewing Laboratory (Oy Panimolaboratorio—Bryggerilaboratorium Ab) and the Tor-Magnus Enari Fund.
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2020. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit