University of Oulu

Kimbi Yaah, V.B., Zbair, M., Botelho de Oliveira, S. et al. Hydrochar-derived adsorbent for the removal of diclofenac from aqueous solution. Nanotechnol. Environ. Eng. 6, 3 (2021).

Hydrochar-derived adsorbent for the removal of diclofenac from aqueous solution

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Author: Kimbi Yaah, Velma Beri1; Zbair, Mohamed2; de Oliveira, Sérgio Botelho3;
Organizations: 1Environmental and Chemical Engineering Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Laboratory of Catalysis and Corrosion of Materials (LCCM), Faculty of Sciences, University of Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
3Federal Institute of Goiás - IFG, Goiania, Brazil
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-01-28


The characteristics and diclofenac adsorption properties of a carbon adsorbent prepared from palm kernel shells were studied. The adsorbent prepared via hydrothermal carbonization followed by an activation in nitrogen flow had a mesoporous structure with homogenous pore distribution and the specific surface area of 131 m²g⁻¹. The Raman spectra showed a formation of graphene or graphite structures in the material during activation with small number of defects based on its ID/IG ratio of about 0.5. The FTIR analysis showed both a qualitative and quantitative decrease in the functional groups of the raw material after activation. The developed adsorbent was found to be effective in the removal of diclofenac with 95% maximum removal at pH 2, adsorbent dose of 15 gL⁻¹ and adsorbate dose of 50 mgL⁻¹. Diclofenac adsorption followed the Langmuir isotherm model with correlation coefficient R² > 0.98. The adsorption kinetics was explained by the second-order kinetic model with rate constant (K₂) 0.869 min⁻¹. The interaction via aromatic π–π stacking and hydrogen bonding between -OH groups of phenol and carboxylic acid groups of DCF are leading to a good adsorption efficiency despite of the low surface area of the adsorbent.

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Series: Nanotechnology for environmental engineering
ISSN: 2365-6379
ISSN-E: 2365-6387
ISSN-L: 2365-6379
Volume: 6
Article number: 3
DOI: 10.1007/s41204-020-00099-5
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work is funded by I4FUTURE doctoral program that has received funding from the EU H2020 under Marie Sklodowska Curie Grant Agreement No. 713606.
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
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