University of Oulu

Khallok, H., Zbair, M., Ojala, S. et al. Ceramic hydroxyapatite foam as a new material for Bisphenol A removal from contaminated water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28, 17739–17751 (2021).

Ceramic hydroxyapatite foam as a new material for Bisphenol A removal from contaminated water

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Author: Khallok, Hamza1,2; Zbair, Mohamed2,3; Ojala, Satu2;
Organizations: 1Team of Energy, Materials, and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Chouaib Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
2Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
3Laboratory of Catalysis and Corrosion of Materials (LCCM), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences of El Jadida, University of Chouaïb Doukkali, BP.20, 24000, El Jadida, Morocco
4Laboratory of Coordination and Analytical Chemistry (LCCA), University Chouaïb Doukkali, El Jadida, Morocco
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-01-05


Ceramic hydroxyapatite foam (CF-HAP) was prepared by combining slip-casting and foaming methods. The prepared CF-HAP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physisorption of N2, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results of the specific surface area and SEM analyses revealed that the used shaping method provides CF-HAP with a wide range of porosity including macro and mesopores. Based on FTIR and XRD analyses, the CF-HAP is similar to pure well-crystallized hydroxyapatite. The adsorption results revealed that 94% of the BPA with a concentration of (40 mg/L) was effectively removed from the water and that the maximum adsorption capacity was higher in acidic than in basic medium. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the adsorption reaction was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The adsorption capacity increased with the temperature and the BPA is chemisorbed on the ceramic foam. The isotherm data fitted slightly better with the Liu than with the Freundlich and Langmuir models suggesting that the adsorption was homogeneous and occurred only in the monolayer. The adsorption process depends largely on the BPA concentration and the results fitted well with the pseudo-first-order model. This confirms that the interaction between the BPA and the CF-HAP was mainly chemical in nature. The FTIR analysis of the used and fresh CF-HAP showed that all the hydroxyl and phosphorus bands characteristic of the hydroxyapatite shifted after adsorption of Bisphenol A. This suggests that the adsorption of Bisphenol A occurred in the sites of the hydroxyapatite. Therefore, it can be concluded that the CF-HAP has the potential to be used as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment and purification processes.

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Series: Environmental science and pollution research
ISSN: 0944-1344
ISSN-E: 1614-7499
ISSN-L: 0944-1344
Volume: 28
Pages: 17739 - 17751
DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-12076-1
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: The research leading to these results has received funding from the Erasmus+ Global program between the University of Oulu, Finland, and the University of Chouaïb Doukkali in Morocco under the grant agreement no 56101_KA107_2015_HE. Part of the research was carried out during the NO-WASTE project that received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP / 2007–2013) under the grant agreement no [PIRSES-GA-2012-317714].
EU Grant Number: (317714) NO-WASTE - Utilization of Industrial By-products and Waste in Environmental Protection
Copyright information: © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature 2021. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Environmental Science and Pollution Research. The final authenticated version is available online at: