University of Oulu

Mishev, A. L., Koldobskiy, S. A., Usoskin, I. G., Kocharov, L. G., & Kovaltsov, G. A. (2021). Application of the verified neutron monitor yield function for an extended analysis of the GLE # 71 on 17 May 2012. Space Weather, 19, e2020SW002626.

Application of the verified neutron monitor yield function for an extended analysis of the GLE # 71 on 17 May 2012

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Author: Mishev, A. L.1,2; Koldobskiy, S. A.3; Usoskin, I. G.1,2;
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
4Ioffe Physical‐Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-02-03


Intense solar activity was observed in May 2012. A notable ground level enhancement (GLE) was registered on 17 May 2012 by several space‐borne instruments as well as on ground by neutron monitors (NMs). This event is known as GLE # 71. Here, we derived the spectral and angular characteristics, and apparent source position of the solar protons during the GLE # 71, employing verified newly computed NM yield function and sophisticated unfolding procedure. We considerably improved the previously derived information about the spectra and angular distribution, namely, the precision, time span, and time resolution of the derived characteristics, specifically during the event onset and late phase. A comparison with direct measurements, with the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light‐nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) experiment, of the particle fluence was performed, and good agreement between NM and direct space‐borne data analysis was achieved. Subsequently, we computed the effective dose rates in the polar region at several altitudes during the event using the derived rigidity spectra of the solar protons as a reliable input for the corresponding radiation model. The contribution of the galactic cosmic rays and solar protons to the exposure is explicitly considered. We computed the integrated exposure during the event and discussed the exposure of crew members/passengers to radiation at several altitudes.

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Series: Space weather
ISSN: 1542-7390
ISSN-E: 1542-7390
ISSN-L: 1542-7390
Volume: 19
Issue: 2
Article number: e2020SW002626
DOI: 10.1029/2020SW002626
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (projects 330063 QUASARE, 321882 ESPERA, 304435 CRIPA‐X, 330103, and 330427 HEAIM 2) and by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 20‐72‐10170) and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation under Project “Fundamental problems of cosmic rays and dark matter,” No. 0723‐2020‐0040.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 330063
Detailed Information: 330063 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
304435 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
330103 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
330427 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: Supporting information:
Copyright information: © 2020. The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.