University of Oulu

Willms, T.; Echterhof, T.; Steinlechner, S.; Aula, M.; Abdelrahim, A.; Fabritius, T.; Mombelli, D.; Mapelli, C.; Preiss, S. Investigation on the Chemical and Thermal Behavior of Recycling Agglomerates from EAF by-Products. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10, 8309.

Investigation on the chemical and thermal behavior of recycling agglomerates from EAF by-products

Saved in:
Author: Willms, Thomas1; Echterhof, Thomas1; Steinlechner, Stefan2;
Organizations: 1Department for Industrial Furnaces and Heat Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr. 10, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Str. 18, 8700 Leoben, Austria
3Process Metallurgy Group, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Dipartimento di Meccanica, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 1, 20156 Milano, Italy
5MFG Metall-und Ferrolegierungsgesellschaft mbH Hafner, Blondin & Tidou, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 9, 40670 Meerbusch, Germany
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.7 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-02-04


In addition to the blast furnace converter route, electric steel production in the electric arc furnace (EAF) is one of the two main production routes for crude steel. In 2019, the global share of crude steel produced via the electric steel route was 28%, which in numbers is 517 million metric tons of crude steel. The production and processing of steel leads to the output of a variety of by-products, such as dusts, fines, sludges and scales. At the moment, 10–67% of these by-products are landfilled and not recycled. These by-products contain metal oxides and minerals including iron oxide, zinc oxide, magnesia or alumina. Apart from the wasted valuable materials, the restriction of landfill space and stricter environmental laws are additional motivations to avoid landfill. The aim of the Fines2EAF project, funded by the European Research Fund for Coal and Steel, is to develop a low-cost and flexible solution for the recycling of fines, dusts, slags and scales from electric steel production. During this project, an easy, on-site solution for the agglomeration of fine by-products from steel production has to be developed from lab scale to pilot production for industrial tests in steel plants. The solution is based on the stamp press as the central element of the agglomeration process. The stamp press provides the benefit of being easily adapted to different raw materials and different pressing parameters, such as pressing-force and -speed, or mold geometry. Further benefits are that the stamp press process requires less binding material than the pelletizing process, and that no drying process is required as is the case with the pelletizing process. Before advancing the agglomeration of by-products via stamp press to an industrial scale, different material recipes are produced in lab-scale experiments and the finished agglomerates are tested for their use as secondary raw materials in the EAF. Therefore, the tests focus on the chemical and thermal behavior of the agglomerates. Chemical behavior, volatilization and reduction behavior of the agglomerates were investigated by differential thermogravimetric analysis combined with mass spectroscopy (TGA-MS). In addition, two melts with different agglomerates are carried out in a technical-scale electric arc furnace to increase the sample size.

see all

Series: Applied sciences
ISSN: 2076-3417
ISSN-E: 2076-3417
ISSN-L: 2076-3417
Volume: 10
Issue: 22
Pages: 1 - 14
Article number: 8309
DOI: 10.3390/app10228309
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This project has received funding by the European Commission from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel under grant agreement No 754197. This paper reflects only the author’s view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (