University of Oulu

Andjus, P.; Kosanović, M.; Milićević, K.; Gautam, M.; Vainio, S.J.; Jagečić, D.; Kozlova, E.N.; Pivoriūnas, A.; Chachques, J.-C.; Sakaj, M.; Brunello, G.; Mitrecic, D.; Zavan, B. Extracellular Vesicles as Innovative Tool for Diagnosis, Regeneration and Protection against Neurological Damage. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6859.

Extracellular vesicles as innovative tool for diagnosis, regeneration and protection against neurological damage

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Author: Andjus, Pavle1; Kosanović, Maja2; Milićević, Katarina1;
Organizations: 1Center for Laser Microscopy, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
2Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, INEP, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia
3Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
4Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Disease Networks Research Unit, InfoTech Oulu, Kvantum Institute, University of Oulu, Borealis Biobank of Northern Finland, Univ. Oulu Hospital, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5Laboratory for Stem Cells, Croatian Institute for Brain Research, University of Zagreb School of Medicine, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
6Laboratory of Regenerative Neurobiology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden
7Department of Stem Cell Biology, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, LT-01001 Vilnius, Lithuania
8Laboratory of Biosurgical Research (Alain Carpentier Foundation), Pompidu Hospital, University Paris Descartes, 75015 Paris, France
9Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, 30100 Venice, Italy
10Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, 35128 Padova, Italy
11Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-02-10


Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently attracted a great deal of interest as they may represent a new biosignaling paradigm. According to the mode of biogenesis, size and composition, two broad categories of EVs have been described, exosomes and microvesicles. EVs have been shown to carry cargoes of signaling proteins, RNA species, DNA and lipids. Once released, their content is selectively taken up by near or distant target cells, influencing their behavior. Exosomes are involved in cell–cell communication in a wide range of embryonic developmental processes and in fetal–maternal communication. In the present review, an outline of the role of EVs in neural development, regeneration and diseases is presented. EVs can act as regulators of normal homeostasis, but they can also promote either neuroinflammation/degeneration or tissue repair in pathological conditions, depending on their content. Since EV molecular cargo constitutes a representation of the origin cell status, EVs can be exploited in the diagnosis of several diseases. Due to their capability to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), EVs not only have been suggested for the diagnosis of central nervous system disorders by means of minimally invasive procedures, i.e., “liquid biopsies”, but they are also considered attractive tools for targeted drug delivery across the BBB. From the therapeutic perspective, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent one of the most promising sources of EVs. In particular, the neuroprotective properties of MSCs derived from the dental pulp are here discussed.

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Series: International journal of molecular sciences
ISSN: 1661-6596
ISSN-E: 1422-0067
ISSN-L: 1661-6596
Volume: 21
Issue: 18
Pages: 1 - 27
Article number: 6859
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21186859
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 3111 Biomedicine
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (