University of Oulu

Gupta, A.K.; Aula, M.; Negre, E.; Viljanen, J.; Pauna, H.; Mäkelä, P.; Toivonen, J.; Huttula, M.; Fabritius, T. Analysis of Ilmenite Slag Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy. Minerals 2020, 10, 855.

Analysis of ilmenite slag using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

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Author: Gupta, Avishek Kumar1; Aula, Matti1; Negre, Erwan2,3;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Photonics Laboratory, Physics Unit, Tampere University, 33720 Tampere, Finland
3Finnish Meteorological Institute, FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland
4Metso Outotec Research Centre, FI-28101 Pori, Finland
5Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-02-15


The feasibility of using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the compositional analysis of ilmenite slag was explored. The slag was obtained from a pilot-scale ilmenite smelting furnace. The composition of major oxides TiO₂, FeO, and MgO are determined by the calibrated LIBS method. LIBS measurements are done under normal atmosphere and temperature. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm was used to create a plasma on an ilmenite slag sample. The characteristic lines based on the NIST database of Fe, Mg, and Ti can be identified on the normalized LIBS spectra for the slag samples. The spectral range chosen for the study is 370 to 390 nm. Calibration curves were plotted using the data collected from various industrial ilmenite samples of varying compositions of TiO₂, FeO, and MgO. The univariate simple linear regression technique was used to do the analysis and the prediction accuracy was checked by the root mean square error (RMSE). To validate the application of LIBS, both qualitative and quantitative analysis is done and compared to the analytical ICP-OES results. The model predicts the magnesium content with the highest accuracy and gives good prediction for iron and titanium content. This study demonstrates the capability of using LIBS for the surface analysis of the ilmenite slag sample.

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Series: Minerals
ISSN: 2075-163X
ISSN-E: 2075-163X
ISSN-L: 2075-163X
Volume: 10
Issue: 10
Pages: 1 - 11
Article number: 855
DOI: 10.3390/min10100855
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 713606 under the I4Future doctoral programme—Imaging for the Future: Novel Imaging and Characterization Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations.
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (