University of Oulu

Tuomikoski, S, Runtti, H, Romar, H, Lassi, U, Kangas, T. Multiple heavy metal removal simultaneously by a biomass‐based porous carbon. Water Environ Res. 2021; 93(8): 1303-1314.

Multiple heavy metal removal simultaneously by a biomass‐based porous carbon

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Author: Tuomikoski, Sari1; Runtti, Hanna1; Romar, Henrik1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-02-16


Activated carbon from sawdust was produced with an environmentally friendly process involving single‐stage carbonization and activation with steam at 800°C. Production process is scalable because lignocellulosic biomass is ubiquitous worldwide as a waste or as a virgin material. Single‐stage production without any cooling steps between carbonization and activation is easier in larger scale production. Monometal adsorption and multimetal adsorption of cobalt, nickel, and zinc were investigated by using the produced carbon, with a commercial one as control. Effect of pH, initial metal concentration, adsorbent dosage, and adsorption time was evaluated in batch experiments. Multimetal experiments showed the order of the maximum adsorption capacities: zinc > nickel > cobalt. Experimental adsorption capacities were 17.2, 6.6, and 4.5 mg/g for zinc, nickel, and cobalt, respectively, in multisolute adsorption. In case of monometal adsorption, adsorption capacity was notably lower. Experimental data fitted into the single‐solute and multisolute Freundlich models. The best fit kinetic model varied among the metals. The Weber and Morris intraparticle diffusion model was used. Regeneration was performed with 0.1 M HNO₃, 0.1 M HCl, or 0.1 M H₂SO₄. The adsorption capacity remained at the same within three adsorption–desorption cycles.

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Series: Water environment research
ISSN: 1061-4303
ISSN-E: 1554-7531
ISSN-L: 1061-4303
Volume: 93
Issue: 8
Pages: 1303 - 1314
DOI: 10.1002/wer.1514
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This study was conducted under the auspices of the WaterPro project (ERDF project number: A74635, funded by the Central Ostrobothnia Regional Council, European Union, European Regional Development Fund and Leverage from the EU). The authors thank the exchange students Lena Vollert and Peggy Chan for their assistance in the laboratory experiments. Hanna Runtti thanks Maa‐ ja Vesitekniikan tuki ry for financial support.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Water Environment Research published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Water Environment Federation. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.