University of Oulu

Juhola, R., Heponiemi, A., Tuomikoski, S., Hu, T., Huuhtanen, M., Bergna, D., & Lassi, U. (2021). Preparation of Granulated Biomass Carbon Catalysts—Structure Tailoring, Characterization, and Use in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation of Bisphenol A. Catalysts, 11(2), 251. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Preparation of granulated biomass carbon catalysts : structure tailoring, characterization, and use in catalytic wet air oxidation of bisphenol A

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Author: Juhola, Riikka1; Heponiemi, Anne1; Tuomikoski, Sari1;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Sustainable Chemistry, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
2Environmental and Chemical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
3Unit of Applied Chemistry, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius, University of Jyvaskylä, FI-67100 Kokkola, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-02-17


New carbonized biomass–metakaolin (PSD/MK_Fe) granular composite catalyst materials were manufactured for the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of bisphenol A (BPA). These catalysts were characterized using different analytical and spectroscopic techniques, and results showed that the catalysts’ final properties were influenced by the addition of metakaolin (MK), polyvinyl alcohol, boric acid, and iron. Under the optimal CWAO experimental conditions (p: 20 bar, T: 160 °C, initial pH: 5–6, c[catalyst]: 1.0 g/L), nearly complete BPA conversion (>98%) and total organic carbon (TOC) conversion of 70% were reached. A key factor behind the enhanced catalytic activity was high specific surface area, although catalytic activity was also affected by surface acidity. These results confirmed the high efficiency of the current BPA conversion process involving the use of the easily separable and reusable PSD/MK_Fe catalyst. Therefore, biomass composite catalysts can be regarded as efficient catalysts for the oxidation of BPA during the CWAO process.

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Series: Catalysts
ISSN: 2073-4344
ISSN-E: 2073-4344
ISSN-L: 2073-4344
Volume: 11
Issue: 2
Article number: 251
DOI: 10.3390/catal11020251
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This research was funded by the Fortum Foundation, grant number 20190004.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( /by/4.0/).