University of Oulu

Adeolu Adediran, Patrick N. Lemougna, Juho Yliniemi, Pekka Tanskanen, Paivo Kinnunen, Juha Roning, Mirja Illikainen, Recycling glass wool as a fluxing agent in the production of clay- and waste-based ceramics, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 289, 2021, 125673, ISSN 0959-6526,

Recycling glass wool as a fluxing agent in the production of clay- and waste-based ceramics

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Author: Adediran, Adeolu1; Lemougna, Patrick N.1,2,3; Yliniemi, Juho1;
Organizations: 1Faculty of Technology, Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, PO Box 4300, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland
2Department of Materials and Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium
3Department of Minerals Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Mineral Industries (EGCIM), University of Ngaoundere, P.O. Box 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon
4Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, 90014, Oulu, Finland
5InfoTech Oulu, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, Biomimetics and Intelligent Systems Group (BISG), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-02-22


Concerns about the management of glass wool waste, approximately 800,000 tons of which are generated annually in Europe, are increasing. To test the feasibility of incorporating this waste into ceramic materials, this study examined the reuse of glass wool as a fluxing agent in the production of clay- and waste-based building ceramics. Commercial kaolin clay and two industrial residues, namely quartz-feldspar sand (QFS) and copper slag (CS), were selected as the precursors. Six compositions were prepared, three samples containing glass wool and three counterparts without glass wool, and then sintered at 750, 850, and 950 °C. The materials and prepared ceramics were characterized by employing x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), water absorption, apparent density, and compressive and flexural strength tests. Interestingly, the results indicated that incorporating 10 wt% of glass wool into the QFS, CS, and kaolin mixtures created ceramics with better physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties. This was ascribed to the glass wool melting reactions observed from approximately 700 °C. The QFS samples with glass wool and sintered at 950 °C achieved compressive strength values as high as 117 MPa and water absorption percentages as low as 2%. However, the fluxing effect of glass wool was less significant in the CS- and kaolin-based ceramics, likely due to differences in their chemical composition, mineralogy, and particle-size distribution. The results of this study emphasize the reuse potential of glass wool and other waste streams in building ceramics and could contribute to improving the management of glass wool waste in line with social sustainability objectives.

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Series: Journal of cleaner production
ISSN: 0959-6526
ISSN-E: 1879-1786
ISSN-L: 0959-6526
Volume: 289
Article number: 125673
DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125673
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This work was done as a part of the GEOBOT project, supported by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), Pohjois-Pohjanmaa Council of Oulu Region, and various companies (Boliden Harjavalta Oy, Keliber Oy, and Saint Gobain Finland Oy). The author has received funding from K.H. Renlund Foundation for his doctoral research. P. Kinnunen and J. Yliniemi acknowledge financial support from the Academy of Finland (grants 326291 and 322786). The authors gratefully acknowledge the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland, for assistance with data analysis.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322786
Detailed Information: 322786 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (