University of Oulu

M. Aguilar, L. Ali Cavasonza, G. Ambrosi, L. Arruda, N. Attig, F. Barao, L. Barrin, A. Bartoloni, S. Başeğmez-du Pree, J. Bates, R. Battiston, M. Behlmann, B. Beischer, J. Berdugo, B. Bertucci, V. Bindi, W. de Boer, K. Bollweg, B. Borgia, M.J. Boschini, M. Bourquin, E.F. Bueno, J. Burger, W.J. Burger, S. Burmeister, X.D. Cai, M. Capell, J. Casaus, G. Castellini, F. Cervelli, Y.H. Chang, G.M. Chen, H.S. Chen, Y. Chen, L. Cheng, H.Y. Chou, S. Chouridou, V. Choutko, C.H. Chung, C. Clark, G. Coignet, C. Consolandi, A. Contin, C. Corti, Z. Cui, K. Dadzie, Y.M. Dai, C. Delgado, S. Della Torre, M.B. Demirköz, L. Derome, S. Di Falco, V. Di Felice, C. Díaz, F. Dimiccoli, P. von Doetinchem, F. Dong, F. Donnini, M. Duranti, A. Egorov, A. Eline, J. Feng, E. Fiandrini, P. Fisher, V. Formato, C. Freeman, Y. Galaktionov, C. Gámez, R.J. García-López, C. Gargiulo, H. Gast, I. Gebauer, M. Gervasi, F. Giovacchini, D.M. Gómez-Coral, J. Gong, C. Goy, V. Grabski, D. Grandi, M. Graziani, K.H. Guo, S. Haino, K.C. Han, R.K. Hashmani, Z.H. He, B. Heber, T.H. Hsieh, J.Y. Hu, Z.C. Huang, W. Hungerford, M. Incagli, W.Y. Jang, Yi Jia, H. Jinchi, K. Kanishev, B. Khiali, G.N. Kim, Th. Kirn, M. Konyushikhin, O. Kounina, A. Kounine, V. Koutsenko, A. Kuhlman, A. Kulemzin, G. La Vacca, E. Laudi, G. Laurenti, I. Lazzizzera, A. Lebedev, H.T. Lee, S.C. Lee, C. Leluc, J.Q. Li, M. Li, Q. Li, S. Li, T.X. Li, Z.H. Li, C. Light, C.H. Lin, T. Lippert, Z. Liu, S.Q. Lu, Y.S. Lu, K. Luebelsmeyer, J.Z. Luo, S.S. Lyu, F. Machate, C. Mañá, J. Marín, J. Marquardt, T. Martin, G. Martínez, N. Masi, D. Maurin, A. Menchaca-Rocha, Q. Meng, D.C. Mo, M. Molero, P. Mott, L. Mussolin, J.Q. Ni, N. Nikonov, F. Nozzoli, A. Oliva, M. Orcinha, M. Palermo, F. Palmonari, M. Paniccia, A. Pashnin, M. Pauluzzi, S. Pensotti, H.D. Phan, V. Plyaskin, M. Pohl, S. Porter, X.M. Qi, X. Qin, Z.Y. Qu, L. Quadrani, P.G. Rancoita, D. Rapin, A. Reina Conde, S. Rosier-Lees, A. Rozhkov, D. Rozza, R. Sagdeev, S. Schael, S.M. Schmidt, A. Schulz von Dratzig, G. Schwering, E.S. Seo, B.S. Shan, J.Y. Shi, T. Siedenburg, C. Solano, J.W. Song, R. Sonnabend, Q. Sun, Z.T. Sun, M. Tacconi, X.W. Tang, Z.C. Tang, J. Tian, Samuel C.C. Ting, S.M. Ting, N. Tomassetti, J. Torsti, C. Tüysüz, T. Urban, I. Usoskin, V. Vagelli, R. Vainio, E. Valente, E. Valtonen, M. Vázquez Acosta, M. Vecchi, M. Velasco, J.P. Vialle, L.Q. Wang, N.H. Wang, Q.L. Wang, S. Wang, X. Wang, Z.X. Wang, J. Wei, Z.L. Weng, H. Wu, R.Q. Xiong, W. Xu, Q. Yan, Y. Yang, H. Yi, Y.J. Yu, Z.Q. Yu, M. Zannoni, C. Zhang, F. Zhang, F.Z. Zhang, J.H. Zhang, Z. Zhang, F. Zhao, Z.M. Zheng, H.L. Zhuang, V. Zhukov, A. Zichichi, N. Zimmermann, P. Zuccon, The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the international space station: Part II — Results from the first seven years, Physics Reports, Volume 894, 2021, Pages 1-116, ISSN 0370-1573, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2020.09.003

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) on the international space station : Part II — results from the first seven years

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Author: Aguilar, M.1; Cavasonza, L. Ali2,3; Ambrosi, G.4;
Arruda, L.5; Attig, N.6,7; Barao, F.5; Barrin, L.8; Bartoloni, A.9; Basegmez-du Pree, S.10,11; Bates, J.12; Battiston, R.13,14; Behlmann, M.15; Beischer, B.2,3; Berdugo, J.1; Bertucci, B.4,16; Bindi, V17; de Boer, W.18; Bollweg, K.12; Borgia, B.9,19; Boschini, Mj20; Bourquin, M.21; Bueno, E. F.10; Burger, J.15; Burger, W. J.13; Burmeister, S.22; Cai, X. D.15; Capell, M.15; Casaus, J.1; Castellini, G.23; Cervelli, F.24; Chang, Y. H.25,26,27; Chen, G. M.28,29; Chen, H. S.28,29; Chen, Y.21; Cheng, L.30; Chou, H. Y.26,27; Chouridou, S.2,3; Choutko, V15; Chung, C. H.2,3; Clark, C.15,12; Coignet, G.31; Consolandi, C.17; Contin, A.32,33; Corti, C.17; Cui, Z.30,34; Dadzie, K.15; Dai, Y. M.35; Delgado, C.1; Della Torre, S.20; Demirkoz, M. B.36; Derome, L.37; Di Falco, S.24; Di Felice, V38,39; Diaz, C.1; Dimiccoli, F.13; von Doetinchem, P.17; Dong, F.40; Donnini, F.38,39; Duranti, M.4; Egorov, A.15; Eline, A.15; Feng, J.15; Fiandrini, E.4,16; Fisher, P.15; Formato, V38,39; Freeman, C.17; Galaktionov, Y.15; Gamez, C.1; Garcia-Lopez, R. J.41,42; Gargiulo, C.8; Gast, H.2,3; Gebauer, I18; Gervasi, M.20,43; Giovacchini, F.1; Gomez-Coral, D. M.17; Gong, J.40; Goy, C.31; Grabski, V44; Grandi, D.20,43; Graziani, M.4,16; Guo, K. H.45; Haino, S.25; Han, K. C.46; Hashmani, R. K.36; He, Z. H.45; Heber, B.22; Hsieh, T. H.15; Hu, J. Y.28,29; Huang, Z. C.45; Hungerford, W.12; Incagli, M.24; Jang, W. Y.47; Jia, Yi15; Jinchi, H.46; Kanishev, K.13; Khiali, B.38,39; Kim, G. N.47; Kirn, Th2,3; Konyushikhin, M.15; Kounina, O.15; Kounine, A.15; Koutsenko, V15; Kuhlman, A.17; Kulemzin, A.15; La Vacca, G.20,43; Laudi, E.8; Laurenti, G.32; Lazzizzera, I13,14; Lebedev, A.15; Lee, H. T.48; Lee, S. C.25; Leluc, C.21; Li, J. Q.40; Li, M.2,3; Li, Q.40; Li, S.2,3; Li, T. X.45; Li, Z. H.28; Light, C.17; Lin, C. H.25; Lippert, T.6,7; Liu, Z.21; Lu, S. Q.45; Lu, Y. S.28; Luebelsmeyer, K.2,3; Luo, J. Z.40; Lyu, S. S.45; Machate, F.2,3; Mana, C.1; Marin, J.1; Marquardt, J.22; Martin, T.15,12; Martinez, G.1; Masi, N.32,33; Maurin, D.37; Menchaca-Rocha, A.44; Meng, Q.40; Mo, D. C.45; Molero, M.1; Mott, P.15,12; Mussolin, L.4,16; Ni, J. Q.45; Nikonov, N.2,3; Nozzoli, F.13; Oliva, A.32; Orcinha, M.5; Palermo, M.17; Palmonari, F.32,33; Paniccia, M.21; Pashnin, A.15; Pauluzzi, M.4,16; Pensotti, S.20,43; Phan, H. D.15; Plyaskin, V15; Pohl, M.21; Porter, S.12; Qi, X. M.45; Qin, X.15; Qu, Z. Y.25; Quadrani, L.32,33; Rancoita, P. G.20; Rapin, D.21; Conde, A. Reina41,42; Rosier-Lees, S.31; Rozhkov, A.15; Rozza, D.20,43; Sagdeev, R.49; Schael, S.2,3; Schmidt, S. M.6,7; von Dratzig, A. Schulz2,3; Schwering, G.2,3; Seo, E. S.50; Shan, B. S.51; Shi, J. Y.40; Siedenburg, T.2,3; Solano, C.15; Song, J. W.34; Sonnabend, R.2,3; Sun, Q.34; Sun, Z. T.28,29; Tacconi, M.20,43; Tang, X. W.28; Tang, Z. C.28; Tian, J.4,16; Ting, Samuel C. C.15,8; Ting, S. M.15; Tomassetti, N.4,16; Torsti, J.52; Tuysuz, C.36; Urban, T.15,12; Usoskin, I53,54; Vagelli, V.4,55; Vainio, R.52; Valente, E.9,19; Valtonen, E.52; Vazquez Acosta, M.41,42; Vecchi, M.10; Velasco, M.1; Vialle, J. P.31; Wang, L. Q.34; Wang, N. H.34; Wang, Q. L.35; Wang, S.17; Wang, X.15; Wang, Z. X.45; Wei, J.21; Weng, Z. L.15; Wu, H.40; Xiong, R. Q.40; Xu, W.30,34; Yan, Q.15; Yang, Y.56; Yi, H.40; Yu, Y. J.35; Yu, Z. Q.28; Zannoni, M.20,43; Zhang, C.28; Zhang, F.28,29; Zhang, F. Z.28,29; Zhang, J. H.40; Zhang, Z.15; Zhao, F.28,29; Zheng, Z. M.51; Zhuang, H. L.28; Zhukov, V2,3; Zichichi, A.32,33; Zimmermann, N.2,3; Zuccon, P.13,14
Organizations: 1Ctr Invest Energet Medioambientales & Tecnol CIEM, Madrid 28040, Spain.
2Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
3Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, JARA FAME, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
4Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
5Lab Instrumentacao & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal.
6Res Ctr Julich, Julich Supercomp Ctr, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
7Res Ctr Julich, JARA FAME, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
8European Org Nucl Res CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
9Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
10Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, POB 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
11Nikhef, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands.
12NASA, Johnson Space Ctr JSC, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
13Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, TIFPA, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
14Univ Trento, I-38123 Povo, Trento, Italy.
15MIT, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
16Univ Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
17Univ Hawaii, Phys & Astron Dept, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
18Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, Inst Expt Teilchenphys, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
19Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
20Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
21Univ Geneva, DPNC, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
22Christian Alberts Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Angew Phys, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.
23CNR IROE, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
24Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.
25Acad Sinica, Inst Phys, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
26Natl Cent Univ NCU, Phys Dept, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
27Natl Cent Univ NCU, Ctr High Energy & High Field Phys, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
28Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys IHEP, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
29Univ Chinese Acad Sci UCAS, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
30Shandong Inst Adv Technol SDIAT, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
31Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, LAPP IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.
32Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
33Univ Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
34Shandong Univ SDU, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
35Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Elect Engn IEE, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
36Middle East Tech Univ METU, Dept Phys, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
37Univ Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble INP, CNRS, LPSC IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
38Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
39ASI Space Sci Data Ctr SSDC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
40Southeast Univ SEU, Nanjing 210096, Peoples R China.
41Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Spain.
42Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Spain.
43Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
44Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Ciudad De Mexico 01000, Mexico.
45Sun Yat Sen Univ SYSU, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China.
46Natl Chung Shan Inst Sci & Technol NCSIST, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan.
47Kyungpook Natl Univ, CHEP, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
48Acad Sinica Grid Ctr ASGC, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
49Univ Maryland, East West Ctr Space Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
50Univ Maryland, IPST, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
51Beihang Univ BUAA, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
52Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Space Res Lab, Turku 20014, Finland.
53Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ, Oulu 90014, Finland.
54Univ Oulu, Space Phys & Astron Res Unit, Oulu 90014, Finland.
55Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
56Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 14.6 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe202102235699
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-02-23
Description:

Abstract

The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics detector on the International Space Station (ISS) conducting a unique, long-duration mission of fundamental physics research in space. The physics objectives include the precise studies of the origin of dark matter, antimatter, and cosmic rays as well as the exploration of new phenomena. Following a 16-year period of construction and testing, and a precursor flight on the Space Shuttle, AMS was installed on the ISS on May 19, 2011. In this report we present results based on 120 billion charged cosmic ray events up to multi-TeV energies. This includes the fluxes of positrons, electrons, antiprotons, protons, and nuclei. These results provide unexpected information, which cannot be explained by the current theoretical models. The accuracy and characteristics of the data, simultaneously from many different types of cosmic rays, provide unique input to the understanding of origins, acceleration, and propagation of cosmic rays.

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Series: Physics reports
ISSN: 0370-1573
ISSN-E: 1873-6270
ISSN-L: 0370-1573
Volume: 894
Pages: 1 - 116
DOI: 10.1016/j.physrep.2020.09.003
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1016/j.physrep.2020.09.003
Type of Publication: A2 Review article in a scientific journal
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Subjects:
Funding: AMS research is supported by: the Academy of Finland, Finland, Project No. 321882, Finland; CNRS/IN2P3, France and CNES, France, France; Pascale Ehrenfreund, DLR, Germany under Grants No. 50OO1403 and No. 50OO1803 and JARA-HPC, Germany under Project No. JARA0052, Germany; INFN, Italy and ASI, Italy under ASI-INFN Agreements No. 2019-19-HH.0 and No. 2014-037-R.0, and ASI-University of Perugia, Italy Agreement No. 2019-2-HH.0, Italy; CHEP, Republic of Korea and NRF, Republic of Korea under Grant No. NRF-2018R1A6A1A06024970 at Kyungpook National University, Korea; the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Mexico and UNAM, Mexico, Mexico; NWO, Netherlands under Grant. No. 680-1-004, the Netherlands; FCT, Portugal under Grant No. CERN/FIS-PAR/0013/2019, Portugal; CIEMAT, Spain, IAC, Spain, CDTI, Spain, and SEIDI-MINECO, Spain under Grants No. ESP2017-87055-C2-1-P, No. SEV-2015-0548, No. MDM-2015-0509, and No. RyC-2013-14660, Spain; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), Switzerland, federal and cantonal authorities, and the Fondation Dr. Manfred Steuer, Switzerland; Academia Sinica, Taiwan and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Taiwan under Grants No. 103-2112-M-006-018-MY3, No. 105-2112-M-001-003, and No. CDA-105-M06, former Presidents of Academia Sinica Yuan-Tseh Lee and Chi-Huey Wong and former Ministers of MOST Maw-Kuen Wu and Luo-Chuan Lee, Taiwan; the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Turkey under Grants No. 2017TAEK(CERN)A5.H6.F2-15, Turkey; and NSF, United States Grants No. 14255202 and No. 1551980, Wyle Laboratories, United States Grant No. 2014/T72497, and NASA NESSF, United States Grant No. HELIO15F-0005, USA. We are grateful for important physics discussions with Pasquale Blasi, Fiorenza Donato, Jonathan Ellis, Jonathan Feng, Tim Linden, Igor Moskalenko, Subir Sarkar, and Steven Weinberg.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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