University of Oulu

Nguyen, H., Carvelli, V., Kunther, W., Illikainen, M., & Kinnunen, P. (2021). Phase evolution and mechanical performance of an ettringite-based binder during hydrothermal aging. Cement and Concrete Research, 143, 106403.

Phase evolution and mechanical performance of an ettringite-based binder during hydrothermal aging

Saved in:
Author: Nguyen, Hoang1; Carvelli, Valter2; Kunther, Wolfgang3;
Organizations: 1Fibre and Particle Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, Pentti Kaiteran katu 1, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Department A.B.C., Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italy
3Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.4 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-02-24


Little is known about the performance of ettringite-based binders in hydrothermal conditions. This investigation aims to gain insights into the phase evolution and corresponding mechanical performance of an ettringite-based binder considering crystallization pressure caused by late-reaction products. Additionally, the role of fiber reinforcement on the strength retention of the binder was investigated. When aged at an elevated temperature under water-saturated conditions, hard-burned MgO hydrated to form brucite. The precipitation and growth of the brucite crystals led to a crystallization pressure of approximately 200 MPa calculated using thermodynamic modelling. Damage was observed after 4 months of aging with cracks in the microstructure and eventually a failure at the macro scale. Ettringite remained stable at 60 °C due to the water-saturated conditions. Polypropylene fiber delayed crack propagation and thus reduced the damage caused by crystallization pressure. The fiber improved the flexural performance of composite attaining deflection-hardening behavior regardless of aging conditions.

see all

Series: Cement and concrete research
ISSN: 0008-8846
ISSN-E: 1873-3948
ISSN-L: 0008-8846
Volume: 143
Article number: 106403
DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2021.106403
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 212 Civil and construction engineering
214 Mechanical engineering
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This work is a part of the FLOW Project (project number 8904/31/2017) funded by Business Finland in the ERA-MIN 2 Innovation program (EU Horizon 2020 program). SSAB Europe Oy is acknowledged for providing ladle slag. The authors thank Merja Perätalo and Samppa Hyvärinen for the support during lab work and Dr. Laura Caneda-Martínez (CSIC, Spain) for fruitful discussion on the saturation index in GEMS. P.K. acknowledges financial support from the Kvantum Institute (University of Oulu) and the Academy of Finland (grants 322085, 329477 and 326291). A part of the material characterization was carried out with the support from the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Finland.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 322085
Detailed Information: 322085 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
329477 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (