University of Oulu

Chen, W.; Ren, N.; Zhu, C.; Keskinarkaus, A.; Seppänen, T.; Zhou, Q. Joint Image Encryption and Screen-Cam Robust Two Watermarking Scheme. Sensors 2021, 21, 701.

Joint image encryption and screen-cam robust two watermarking scheme

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Author: Chen, Weitong1,2,3; Ren, Na1,2,3; Zhu, Changqing1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment, Nanjing Normal University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023, China
2State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing 210023, China
3Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
4Physiological Signal Analysis Team, Center for Machine Vision and Signal Analysis, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-02-25


This paper proposes a joint encryption and screen-cam robust watermarking scheme. This method combines the advantages of smartphone, encryption and watermarking technologies, thereby achieving watermark extraction with a smartphone, partial decryption and tracking leakage from sneak shots. We design a dual watermarking algorithm to achieve watermark detection from both encrypted and decrypted images. First, a watermark is embedded in the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) domain to enable leakage tracking. Then, a second watermark is generated based on QR (Quick response) code encoding and inverse DFT to achieve high watermark capacity and error correction ability, where the secret key for decryption is included in the watermark message. By hiding this message carrying the watermark for the encrypted image in the changes caused by embedding the first watermark, we can improve imperceptibility and will not affect the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Finally, to enhance the robustness of watermark after encryption, a chaotic mapping-based segment encryption algorithm is proposed. In the process of watermark detection, to cope with perspective correction, a frame locating based algorithm is employed to achieve watermark synchronization from a recaptured picture of the encrypted image. Considering the severe quality degradation, we use a noise component and local statistic feature-based method to extract the message bits. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is secure, and highly robust, to screen-cam the process for both before and after decryption. Additionally, after decryption, the proposed scheme also has high robustness against common image processing attacks.

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Series: Sensors
ISSN: 1424-8220
ISSN-E: 1424-8220
ISSN-L: 1424-8220
Volume: 21
Issue: 3
Article number: 701
DOI: 10.3390/s21030701
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 113 Computer and information sciences
222 Other engineering and technologies
Funding: This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant number 42071362 and 41971338, the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, grant number BK20191373.
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.