University of Oulu

M. E. Leinonen, N. Tervo, M. Jokinen, O. Kursu and A. Pärssinen, "5G mmW Link Range Uncertainties From RF System Calculations and OTA Measurements," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 31956-31966, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3060860

5G mmW link range uncertainties from RF system calculations and OTA measurements

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Author: Leinonen, Marko E.1; Tervo, Nuutti1; Jokinen, Markku1;
Organizations: 1Center of Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-03-01


Phased arrays in 5G millimeter wave (mmW) communication are used at both link ends to separate users and to enhance the link range. The radio hardware’s RF performance metrics vary due to part-to-part variations within component tolerances. In this paper, we derive probability density functions (PDFs) of over-the-air (OTA) transmission (TX) powers for individual transmitter (Tx) paths and total TX power of the 5G mmW array using Monte Carlo simulations based on component tolerances. The PDF of the TX power individual path of the array follows a log-normal distribution on a linear scale. Hence, the total array’s OTA TX power is a sum of independent linear scale log-normal powers when the power combination happens in OTA towards the main beam direction. We show that the Tx array’s mean power increases when multiple log-normally variated individual TX powers are summed together. Additionally, we prove that a link budget maps to a link range in a non-linear way, skewing the normally distributed link budget to a log-normally distributed link range. The link ranges based on RF system parameter analysis, RF system calculation, and OTA measured system error vector magnitude (EVM) based link range estimation had an excellent match when a 16-QAM 5G NR signal was used. The calculated link ranges are 410 and 434 meters, while the OTA measured system EVM measurement-based link range is 415 meters. For example, uncalibrated Tx array paths would increase the mean of the array’s TX power by 1.2 dB, and the link range increases from 415 to 498 meters, but simultaneously the standard deviation increases from 26 to 51 meters.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 9
Pages: 31956 - 31966
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3060860
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927, in part by the Business Finland-funded 5G Finnish Open Research Collaboration Ecosystem (5GFORCE), and in part by the Business Finland-funded 5GViima.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see