University of Oulu

Reich, Karoline M.; Viitanen, Petrus; Apu, Ehsanul H.; Tangl, Stefan; Ashammakhi, Nureddin. 2020. "The Effect of Diclofenac Sodium-Loaded Poly(Lactide-co-Glycolide) Rods on Bone Formation and Inflammation: A Histological and Histomorphometric Study in the Femora of Rats" Micromachines 11, no. 12: 1098.

The effect of diclofenac sodium-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) rods on bone formation and inflammation : a histological and histomorphometric study in the femora of rats

Saved in:
Author: Reich, Karoline M.1,2; Viitanen, Petrus3; Apu, Ehsanul Hoque4,5;
Organizations: 1Karl Donath Laboratory for Hard Tissue and Biomaterial Research, Division of Oral Surgery, University Clinic of Dentistry, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, 1200 Vienna, Austria
3Institute of Biomaterials, Tampere University of Technology, 33101 Tampere, Finland
4Laboratory of Developmental Biology, Faculty of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of Oulu, 90220 Oulu, Finland
5Institute for Quantitative Health Science and Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
6Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
7Center for Minimally Invasive Therapeutics (C-MIT), University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
8Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
9Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.2 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-03-01


Implants made of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) are biodegradable and frequently provoke foreign body reactions (FBR) in the host tissue. In order to modulate the inflammatory response of the host tissue, PLGA implants can be loaded with anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of PLGA 80/20 rods loaded with the diclofenac sodium (DS) on local tissue reactions in the femur of rats. Special emphasis was put on bone regeneration and the presence of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) associated with FBR. PLGA 80/20 alone and PLGA 80/20 combined with DS was extruded into rods. PLGA rods loaded with DS (PLGA+DS) were implanted into the femora of 18 rats. Eighteen control rats received unloaded PLGA rods. The follow-up period was of 3, 6 and 12 weeks. Each group comprised of six rats. Peri-implant tissue reactions were histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated. The implantation of PLGA and PLGA+DS8 rods induced the formation of a layer of newly formed bone islands parallel to the contour of the implants. PLGA+DS rods tended to reduce the presence of multi-nucleated giant cells (MGCs) at the implant surface. Although it is known that the systemic administration of DS is associated with compromised bone healing, the local release of DS via PLGA rods did not have negative effects on bone regeneration in the femora of rats throughout 12 weeks.

see all

Series: Micromachines
ISSN: 2072-666X
ISSN-E: 2072-666X
ISSN-L: 2072-666X
Volume: 11
Issue: 12
Article number: 1098
DOI: 10.3390/mi11121098
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 1182 Biochemistry, cell and molecular biology
313 Dentistry
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (