University of Oulu

arek Allam, Xiaofei Guo, Marta Lipińska-Chwałek, Atef Hamada, Essam Ahmed, Wolfgang Bleck, Impact of precipitates on the hydrogen embrittlement behavior of a V-alloyed medium-manganese austenitic stainless steel, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, Volume 9, Issue 6, 2020, Pages 13524-13538, ISSN 2238-7854,

Impact of precipitates on the hydrogen embrittlement behavior of a V-alloyed medium-manganese austenitic stainless steel

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Author: Allam, Tarek1,2; Guo, Xiaofei1; Lipińska-Chwałek, Marta3,4;
Organizations: 1Steel Institute (IEHK), RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen, Germany
2Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Suez University, 43528 Suez, Egypt
3Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen, Germany
4Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy With Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute, Microstructure Research (PGI-5), D-52425 Jülich, Germany
5Kerttu Saalsti Institute, University of Oulu, Pajatie 5, Nivala FI-85500, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-03-01


This paper discusses the avoidance of hydrogen embrittlement (HE) in a medium manganese stainless steel X20CrNiMnVN18–5–10. We adopted a HE-mitigation strategy that relies on improving its intrinsic resistance to hydrogen by adjusting an ultrafine microstructure (∼1.3 µm) containing a significant amount of nano-sized V- and Cr-based precipitates in the size range of 20–≥200 nm. The precipitation state was characterized using a high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope. Slow strain rate tests at a strain rate of 10⁻⁶ s⁻¹ were conducted on specimens with/without hydrogen pre-charging to evaluate the HE susceptibility. Thermal desorption analysis was applied to explore the hydrogen trapping behavior in cold-rolled, annealed and hydrogen pre-charged states. Hydrogen uptake and hydrogen desorption behaviors show a dependence on the size of precipitates. It is remarked that the large precipitates trap a larger amount of hydrogen and show a higher temperature desorption peak than the small precipitates do. The high-temperature hydrogen desorption peaks (>400 °C) indicate that the observed nano-sized precipitates provide irreversible trapping sites, where hydrogen uptake occurs. The investigated steel X20CrNiMnVN18–5–10 demonstrates an enhanced intrinsic resistance to HE in comparison to medium and high manganese as well as stainless steels. The findings suggest that microstructure engineering with sufficient number of hydrogen traps in an ultrafine-grained microstructure is an appropriate HE mitigation strategy that allows designing hydrogen-resistant advanced high strength steels.

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Series: Journal of materials research and technology
ISSN: 2238-7854
ISSN-E: 2214-0697
ISSN-L: 2238-7854
Volume: 9
Issue: 6
Pages: 13524 - 13538
DOI: 10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.09.085
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The German research foundation (DFG) within the Collaborative Research Center SFB 761 is appreciated for supporting the processing and testing the developed steel grade. TA acknowledges the DAAD for the personal financial support during the testing phase. The material of this work was produced within the project of National Challenges Program (STDF-NCP-10751) funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF), The Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Cairo.
Copyright information: © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (