University of Oulu

Kanyathare, Boniphace E.; Asamoah, Benjamin; Ishaq, Muhammad U.; Amoani, James; Räty, Jukka; Peiponen, Kai-Erik. 2020. "Identification of Plastic Type and Surface Roughness of Film-Type Plastics in Water Using Kramers–Kronig Analysis" Chemosensors 8, no. 4: 88.

Identification of plastic type and surface roughness of film-type plastics in water using Kramers–Kronig analysis

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Author: Kanyathare, Boniphace Elphace1,2; Asamoah, Benjamin1; Ishaq, Muhammad Umair1;
Organizations: 1Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland
2Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology, 2958 Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
3MITY, University of Oulu, Technology Park, FI-87400 Kajaani, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 7.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020
Publish Date: 2021-03-01


The knowledge of the plastic type, thickness, and the nature of the surface is important towards the monitoring of microplastic pollution in water bodies, especially when vis-NIR spectroscopy is utilized. Factors such as complex environment and surface roughness induced-light scattering of the probing light limit the optical detection of these parameters in in-situ measurements, however. In this paper, a novel application of Kramers–Kronig analysis was exploited to identify both smooth and rough film-type macroplastics with unknown thickness. This method is particularly useful in the in-situ identification of unknown film-like macroplastics; although the sample is large, the ratio function is detected from an area that corresponds to the size of a MP. Therefore, it can be applied for the case of large size MPs. The validity of the method was demonstrated using transmittance data for smooth and roughened plastics given in Kanyathare et al., 2020.

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Series: Chemosensors
ISSN: 2227-9040
ISSN-E: 2227-9040
ISSN-L: 2227-9040
Volume: 8
Issue: 4
Article number: 88
DOI: 10.3390/chemosensors8040088
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work is part of the Academy of Finland Flagship Programme, Photonics Research and Innovation (PREIN), decision 321066.
Copyright information: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (