University of Oulu

Gupta, A. K., Aula, M., Pihlasalo, J., Mäkelä, P., Huttula, M., & Fabritius, T. (2021). Preparation of Synthetic Titania Slag Relevant to the Industrial Smelting Process Using an Induction Furnace. Applied Sciences, 11(3), 1153.

Preparation of synthetic titania slag relevant to the industrial smelting process using an induction furnace

Saved in:
Author: Gupta, Avishek Kumar1; Aula, Matti1; Pihlasalo, Jouni2;
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Metso Outotec Research Center, Kuparitie 10, 28330 Pori, Finland
3Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-03-03


A high titania slag that is used as a feedstock for TiO₂ manufacturing is obtained by ilmenite smelting (FeO.TiO₂). The composition of the slag obtained by smelting is dependent on the composition of the mineral used for slag preparation, i.e., ilmenite in our study. At the laboratory scale, ilmenite slags are mostly obtained by using ilmenite as the raw material. An easy and simple way would be to prepare the synthetic slag using the individual components and heating them to high temperature in a furnace. The titania slag has a high oxidizing nature and requires an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidation of the slag as well as the molybdenum crucible. This paper describes the preparation of synthetic ilmenite slag using an induction furnace and the study of the composition and the phases formed in the slag. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) were used as analytical techniques for studying the slag. A comparison between obtained synthetic slag and industrial ilmenite slag was performed to test the possibility of preparing slags in the laboratory as per the required composition. The slags show similar phase formation as obtained in industrial ilmenite slags, which means that the synthetic slags are identical to the industrial slags.

see all

Series: Applied sciences
ISSN: 2076-3417
ISSN-E: 2076-3417
ISSN-L: 2076-3417
Volume: 11
Issue: 3
Article number: 1153
DOI: 10.3390/app11031153
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Funding: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 713606. The authors are grateful for the financial support from the I4Future doctoral programme—Imaging for the Future. Furthermore, the authors acknowledge the support of the Academy of Finland projects (Academy of Finland, No. 311934 and No. 326291) and Metso Outotec Research Center for their participation in the project.
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (