University of Oulu

Martinez‐Calderon, C., Katoh, Y., Manninen, J., Santolik, O., Kasahara, Y., Matsuda, S., et al. (2021). Multievent study of characteristics and propagation of naturally occurring ELF/VLF waves using high‐latitude ground observations and conjunctions with the Arase satellite. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 126, e2020JA028682.

Multievent study of characteristics and propagation of naturally occurring ELF/VLF waves using high‐latitude ground observations and conjunctions with the Arase satellite

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Author: Martinez-Calderon, C.1,2; Katoh, Y.1; Manninen, J.3;
Organizations: 1Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
2Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
3Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Sodankyla, Finland
4Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
5Department of Space Physics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
6Division of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
7Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, Japan
8Department of Space Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Geophysical Union, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-08-12


We report the properties of the ionospheric exit point and characteristics of several types of very low frequency waves, including chorus and quasiperiodic emissions, based on a comprehensive dataset of simultaneous observations between ground and space. Whistler‐mode waves were observed at Kannuslehto (L = 5.5, KAN), Finland, and in the inner magnetosphere by the Japanese Arase satellite. During the 2017–2018 winter campaign, we found 13 cases showing one‐to‐one correspondence of wave spectra between KAN and Arase. This is the first time that such a large number of conjugated events have been reported at once. The duration of the events ranged from a few minutes up to 3 h, with 90% of events detected in the afternoon sector. While the occurrence rate is higher during daytime, this can also be related to a majority of the detected waves being quasiperiodic emissions, a known dayside phenomenon. Arase was usually located within 30° of the equator, at L ∼4–5, and detected mostly waves propagating at oblique angles (≥20°). Frequently, the ionospheric magnetic footprint of Arase was located equatorwards (south) from KAN, often in the same geographical area. We investigated the probable location of the ionospheric exit point of the waves from the location of the footprint of Arase and the angle of arrival of waves detected at KAN. Using density measurements at Arase we discuss magnetospheric wave propagation; we find that, in most cases, waves were unducted in their propagation from the satellite to the ground.

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Series: Journal of geophysical research. Space physics
ISSN: 2169-9380
ISSN-E: 2169-9402
ISSN-L: 2169-9380
Volume: 126
Issue: 2
Article number: e2020JA028682
DOI: 10.1029/2020JA028682
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: Solar wind parameters were obtained from SPDF/GSFC OMNIWeb database and WDC for geomagnetism, Kyoto. This work was supported by Grants‐in‐Aid for Scientific Research (17F17030) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and by the JSPS International Research Fellowship. Y. Katoh, S. Matsuda, Y. Miyoshi, and K. Shiokawa are also supported by Grants‐in‐Aid for Scientific Research (18H03727, 15H05815, 15H05747, 16H06286, 16H06286, 14J02108, 17K05668, 20H01959) and JSPS Bilateral Open Partnership Joint Research Projects (JPJSBP120192504). O. Santolik acknowledges support from the Czech Academy of Sciences through the JSPS‐19‐05 project and Praemium Academiae award.
Dataset Reference: Science data of the ERG (Arase) satellite were obtained from the ERG Science Center operated by ISAS/JAXA and ISEE/Nagoya University (, Miyoshi, Hori, et al., 2018). ERG satellite datasets for this research are available in these in‐text data citation references: Kasahara, Kojima, et al. (2018), Kasahara, Kumamoto, et al. (2018), Matsuoka, Teramoto, Imajo, et al. (2018), Miyoshi, Shinohara, and Jun (2018). The present study analyzed MGF v03.03 data, PWE OFA v02.01 data (including OFA‐Matrix), PWE HFA‐L2 v01.01 data and PWE HFA‐L3 v.01.02 data. VLF data is available at for KAN and specific datasets for this research are available in this in‐text data citation reference: Martinez‐Calderon and Manninen (2020).
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