University of Oulu

Oksman E, Rosenström T, Hintsanen M, Pulkki-Råback L, Viikari J, Lehtimäki T, Raitakari OT and Keltikangas-Järvinen L (2018) A Longitudinal Multilevel Study of the “Social” Genotype and Diversity of the Phenotype. Front. Psychol. 9:2034. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02034

A longitudinal multilevel study of the “social” genotype and diversity of the phenotype

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Author: Oksman, Elli1; Rosenström, Tom1; Hintsanen, Mirka1,2;
Organizations: 1Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2Unit of Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Departments of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
4Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland
5Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
6Department of Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
7Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center—Tampere, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Frontiers Media, 2018
Publish Date: 2021-03-08


Sociability and social domain-related behaviors have been associated with better well-being and endogenous oxytocin levels. Inspection of the literature, however, reveals that the effects between sociability and health outcomes, or between sociability and genotype, are often weak or inconsistent. In the field of personality psychology, the social phenotype is often measured by error-prone assessments based on different theoretical frameworks, which can partly explain the inconsistency of the previous findings. In this study, we evaluated the generalizability of “sociability” measures by partitioning the population variance in adulthood sociability using five indicators from three personality inventories and assessed in two to four follow-ups over a 15-year period (n = 1,573 participants, 28,323 person-observations; age range 20–50 years). Furthermore, we tested whether this variance partition would shed more light to the inconsistencies surrounding the “social” genotype, by using four genetic variants (rs1042778, rs2254298, rs53576, rs3796863) previously associated with a wide range of human social functions. Based on our results, trait (between-individual) variance explained 23% of the variance in overall sociability, differences between sociability indicators explained 41%, state (within-individual) variance explained 5% and measurement errors explained 32%. The genotype was associated only with the sociability indicator variance, suggesting it has specific effects on sentimentality and emotional sharing instead of reflecting general sociability.

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Series: Frontiers in psychology
ISSN: 1664-1078
ISSN-E: 1664-1078
ISSN-L: 1664-1078
Volume: 9
Article number: 2034
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02034
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 515 Psychology
Funding: This study was supported by the grants awarded to EO by Mannerheim League for Child Welfare's Research Foundation and Finnish Culture Foundation; by the Academy of Finland grant number 265869 awarded to LK-J; by the Academy of Finland project number 258578 awarded to MH; and a grant awarded to LP-R by Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation. The Young Finns Study has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland: Grants 286284, 134309 (Eye), 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117797 (Gendi), and 41071 (Skidi); the Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospitals (grant X51001); the Juho Vainio Foundation; the Sigrid Juselius Foundation; the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation; the Paavo Nurmi Foundation; the Finnish Foundation of Cardiovascular Research and Finnish Cultural Foundation; the Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation; the Emil Aaltonen Foundation; and Diabetes Research Foundation of Finnish Diabetes Association. Open access funding of this article was provided by Helsinki University Library.
Copyright information: © 2018 Oksman, Rosenström, Hintsanen, Pulkki-Råback, Viikari, Lehtimäki, Raitakari and Keltikangas-Järvinen. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.