University of Oulu

Takalo, J. Comparison of Geomagnetic Indices During Even and Odd Solar Cycles SC17 – SC24: Signatures of Gnevyshev Gap in Geomagnetic Activity. Sol Phys 296, 19 (2021).

Comparison of geomagnetic indices during even and odd solar cycles SC17-SC24 : signatures of Gnevyshev gap in geomagnetic activity

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Author: Takalo, Jouni1
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, POB 3000, 90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-03-09


We show that the time series of sunspot group areas has a gap, the so-called Gnevyshev gap (GG), between ascending and descending phases of the cycle and especially so for the even-numbered cycles. For the odd cycles this gap is less obvious, and is only a small decline after the maximum of the cycle. We resample the cycles to have the same length of 3945 days (about 10.8 years), and show that the decline is between 1445 – 1567 days after the start of the cycle for the even cycles, and extending sometimes until 1725 days from the start of the cycle. For the odd cycles the gap is a little earlier, 1332 – 1445 days after the start of the cycles with no extension. We analyze geomagnetic disturbances for Solar Cycles 17 – 24 using the Dst-index, the related Dxt- and Dcx-indices, and the Ap-index. In all of these time series there is a decline at the time, or somewhat after, the GG in the solar indices, and it is at its deepest between 1567 – 1725 days for the even cycles and between 1445 – 1567 days for the odd cycles. The averages of these indices for even cycles in the interval 1445 – 1725 are 46%, 46%, 18%, and 29% smaller compared to surrounding intervals of similar length for Dst, Dxt, Dcx, and Ap, respectively. For odd cycles the averages of the Dst- and Dxt-indices between 1322 – 1567 days are 31% and 12% smaller than the surrounding intervals, but not smaller for the Dcx-index and only 4% smaller for the Ap-index. The declines are significant at the 99% level for both even and odd cycles of the Dst-index and for the Dxt-, Dcx- and Ap-indices for even cycles. For odd cycles of the Dxt-index the significance is 95%, but the decline is insignificant for odd cycles of the Dcx- and Ap-indices.

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Series: Solar physics
ISSN: 0038-0938
ISSN-E: 1573-093X
ISSN-L: 0038-0938
Volume: 296
Issue: 1
Article number: 19
DOI: 10.1007/s11207-021-01765-w
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: Open Access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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