University of Oulu

Raaj Anand Mishra, Anshuman Kalla, An Braeken, Madhusanka Liyanage, Privacy Protected Blockchain Based Architecture and Implementation for Sharing of Students’ Credentials, Information Processing & Management, Volume 58, Issue 3, 2021, 102512, ISSN 0306-4573,

Privacy protected blockchain-based architecture and implementation for sharing of students’ credentials

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Author: Mishra, Raaj Anand1; Kalla, Anshuman2; Braeken, An3;
Organizations: 1Dell EMC, Bangalore, India
2Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, Finland
3Industrial Engineering Department (INDI), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel, Belgium
4School of Computer Science, University College Dublin, Ireland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-02-03


Sharing of students’ credentials is a necessary and integral process of an education ecosystem that comprises various stakeholders like students, schools, companies, professors and the governmental authorities. As of today, all these stakeholders have to put-in an enormous amount of efforts to ensure the authenticity and privacy of students’ credentials. Despite these efforts, the process of sharing students’ credentials is complex, error-prone and not completely secure. Our aim is to leverage blockchain technology to mitigate the existing security-related issues concerning the sharing of students’ credentials. Thus, the paper proposes a tamper-proof, immutable, authentic, non-repudiable, privacy protected and easy to share blockchain-based architecture for secured sharing of students’ credentials. To increase the scalability, the proposed system uses a secure off-chain storage mechanism. The performance and viability of the proposed architecture is analyzed by using an Ethereum based prototypical implementation. The test results imply that requests can be executed within few seconds (without block-time) and the system has stability to process up to 1000 simultaneous requests.

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Series: Information processing & management
ISSN: 0306-4573
ISSN-E: 1873-5371
ISSN-L: 0306-4573
Volume: 58
Issue: 3
Article number: 102512
DOI: 10.1016/j.ipm.2021.102512
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Copyright information: © 2021. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license