University of Oulu

Papula, S.; Sarikka, T.; Anttila, S.; Talonen, J.; Virkkunen, I.; Hänninen, H. Hydrogen-Induced Delayed Cracking in TRIP-Aided Lean-Alloyed Ferritic-Austenitic Stainless Steels. Materials 2017, 10, 613.

Hydrogen-induced delayed cracking in TRIP-aided lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels

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Author: Papula, Suvi1; Sarikka, Teemu1; Anttila, Severi2;
Organizations: 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aalto University School of Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, Aalto FI-00076, Finland
2Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, Oulu 90014, Finland
3Outokumpu Oyj, P.O. Box 245, FI-00181 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2017
Publish Date: 2021-03-24


Susceptibility of three lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels to hydrogen-induced delayed cracking was examined, concentrating on internal hydrogen contained in the materials after production operations. The aim was to study the role of strain-induced austenite to martensite transformation in the delayed cracking susceptibility. According to the conducted deep drawing tests and constant load tensile testing, the studied materials seem not to be particularly susceptible to delayed cracking. Delayed cracks were only occasionally initiated in two of the materials at high local stress levels. However, if a delayed crack initiated in a highly stressed location, strain-induced martensite transformation decreased the crack arrest tendency of the austenite phase in a duplex microstructure. According to electron microscopy examination and electron backscattering diffraction analysis, the fracture mode was predominantly cleavage, and cracks propagated along the body-centered cubic (BCC) phases ferrite and α’-martensite. The BCC crystal structure enables fast diffusion of hydrogen to the crack tip area. No delayed cracking was observed in the stainless steel that had high austenite stability. Thus, it can be concluded that the presence of α’-martensite increases the hydrogen-induced cracking susceptibility.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 10
Issue: 6
Article number: 613
DOI: 10.3390/ma10060613
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 216 Materials engineering
Funding: The research work was conducted a part of the Breakthrough Steels and Applications (BSA) research program within the Digital, Internet, Materials & Engineering Co-Creation (DIMECC), and financially supported by the Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation (Tekes) and Outokumpu Stainless Oy.
Copyright information: © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (