University of Oulu

Redekop, E. A., Johansson, N., Kokkonen, E., Urpelainen, S., Lopes da Silva, F., Kaipio, M., Nieminen, H.-E., Rehman, F., Miikkulainen, V., Ritala, M., & Olsbye, U. (2021). Synchronizing gas injections and time-resolved data acquisition for perturbation-enhanced APXPS experiments. Review of Scientific Instruments, 92(4), 044101.

Synchronizing gas injections and time-resolved data acquisition for perturbation-enhanced APXPS experiments

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Author: Redekop, Evgeniy A.1; Johansson, Niclas2; Kokkonen, Esko2;
Organizations: 1Department of Chemistry, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), University of Oslo, Oslo 0371, Norway
2MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
3Nano and Molecular Systems Research Unit, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4Environmental and Chemical Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden
6Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland
7Current address: Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
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Language: English
Published: American Institute of Physics, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-04-06


An experimental approach is described in which well-defined perturbations of the gas feed into an Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (APXPS) cell are fully synchronized with the time-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data acquisition. These experiments unlock new possibilities for investigating the properties of materials and chemical reactions mediated by their surfaces, such as those in heterogeneous catalysis, surface science, and coating/deposition applications. Implementation of this approach, which is termed perturbation-enhanced APXPS, at the SPECIES beamline of MAX IV Laboratory is discussed along with several experimental examples including individual pulses of N₂ gas over a Au foil, a multi-pulse titration of oxygen vacancies in a pre-reduced TiO₂ single crystal with O₂ gas, and a sequence of alternating precursor pulses for atomic layer deposition of TiO₂ on a silicon wafer substrate.

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Series: Review of scientific instruments
ISSN: 0034-6748
ISSN-E: 1089-7623
ISSN-L: 0034-6748
Volume: 92
Issue: 4
Article number: 044101
DOI: 10.1063/5.0039957
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
116 Chemical sciences
Funding: This work was funded by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) under Contract No. 272266 (TAPXPS project) and the European Regional Development Fund (Interreg Öresun-Kattegat-Skagerrak ESS & MAX IV: Cross Border Science and Society, MAX4ESSFUN, Ref. No. MAX-004). S.U. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, Project SURFACE (Grant Agreement No. 717022), and the Academy of Finland (Grant No. 326291). The ALD-related research was financed by the Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki, and the Academy of Finland (Grant Nos. 295696 and 309552).
EU Grant Number: (717022) SURFACE - The unexplored world of aerosol surfaces and their impacts.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 326291
Detailed Information: 326291 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Dataset Reference: The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
Copyright information: © 2021 Author(s). Published under license by AIP Publishing. The final authenticated version is available online at