University of Oulu

Tiisanoja, A., Syrjälä, AM., Anttonen, V. et al. Anticholinergic burden, oral hygiene practices, and oral hygiene status—cross-sectional findings from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Clin Oral Invest 25, 1829–1837 (2021).

Anticholinergic burden, oral hygiene practices, and oral hygiene status : cross-sectional findings from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

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Author: Tiisanoja, Antti1,2; Syrjälä, Anna-Maija1,2; Anttonen, Vuokko2,3;
Organizations: 1Periodontology and Geriatric Dentistry, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O BOX 5000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
2Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3Cariology, Endodontology and Paediatric Dentistry, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O BOX 5000, FI-90014, Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-04-07


Objectives: To study the association between anticholinergic burden and oral hygiene practices and oral hygiene status among 46-year-old people.

Materials and methods: The study included 1945 participants from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966), who had a complete dental status. The participants underwent clinical medical and dental examinations, and their medication data were gathered by combining self-reported drug use with information from the National Prescription Register. Anticholinergic burden was measured using nine previously published anticholinergic scales. Oral hygiene practices were assessed with toothbrushing frequency and oral hygiene status with the presence of visible dental plaque. Poisson regression with robust variance estimation and negative binomial regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR).

Results: Thirty percent of the participants reported brushing their teeth twice a day and about 25% of their teeth had dental plaque on them. Fifteen percent of the participants used at least one anticholinergic drug or had an anticholinergic burden according to the nine anticholinergic scales. After adjustments for confounding factors, the RRs of anticholinergic burden varied between 0.95 and 1.11 for toothbrushing frequency. Anticholinergic burden (according to Anticholinergic Activity Scale, Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden, Chew’s scale) was associated statistically significantly with the number of teeth with dental plaque. For the three scales, RRs varied from 1.24 to 1.50.

Conclusions: Anticholinergic burden associated with poor oral hygiene.

Clinical relevance: The findings stress the importance of providing oral hygiene instructions and prophylactic measures to patients taking anticholinergic drugs.

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Series: Clinical oral investigations
ISSN: 1432-6981
ISSN-E: 1436-3771
ISSN-L: 1432-6981
Volume: 25
Issue: 4
Pages: 1829 - 1837
DOI: 10.1007/s00784-020-03485-0
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital. The NFBC1966 received financial support from the University of Oulu (No. 24000692), Oulu University Hospital (No. 24301140), and the ERDF European Regional Development Fund (No. 539/2010 A31592). A.T. received a personal grant from the Finnish Dental Association Apollonia for the current study.
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