University of Oulu

Lin, Y.‐C., Karthikeyan, J., Chang, Y.‐P., Li, S., Kretschmer, S., Komsa, H.‐P., Chiu, P.‐W., Krasheninnikov, A. V., Suenaga, K., Formation of Highly Doped Nanostripes in 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides via a Dislocation Climb Mechanism. Adv. Mater. 2021, 33, 2007819.

Formation of highly doped nanostripes in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides via a dislocation climb mechanism

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Author: Lin, Yung-Chang1; Karthikeyan, Jeyakumar2,3; Chang, Yao-Pang4;
Organizations: 1National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565, Japan
2Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, 00076 Aalto, Finland
3Department of Basic Sciences and Humanities, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Petroleum Technology, Jais, Amethi- 229304, Uttar Pradesh, India
4Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan
5International Center for Young Scientists (ICYS), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba 305-0044, Japan
6Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden, Germany
7Microelectronics Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 8000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: accepted version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.6 MB)
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Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Publish Date: 2022-02-19


Doping of materials beyond the dopant solubility limit remains a challenge, especially when spatially nonuniform doping is required. In 2D materials with a high surface‐to‐volume ratio, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, various post‐synthesis approaches to doping have been demonstrated, but full control over spatial distribution of dopants remains a challenge. A post‐growth doping of single layers of WSe2 is performed by adding transition metal (TM) atoms in a two‐step process, which includes annealing followed by deposition of dopants together with Se or S. The Ti, V, Cr, and Fe impurities at W sites are identified by using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Remarkably, an extremely high density (6.4–15%) of various types of impurity atoms is achieved. The dopants are revealed to be largely confined within nanostripes embedded in the otherwise pristine WSe2. Density functional theory calculations show that the dislocations assist the incorporation of the dopant during their climb and give rise to stripes of TM dopant atoms. This work demonstrates a possible spatially controllable doping strategy to achieve the desired local electronic, magnetic, and optical properties in 2D materials.

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Series: Advanced materials
ISSN: 0935-9648
ISSN-E: 1521-4095
ISSN-L: 0935-9648
Volume: 33
Issue: 12
Article number: 2007819
DOI: 10.1002/adma.202007819
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
221 Nanotechnology
Funding: Y.‐C.L. and K.S. acknowledge the JSPS‐KAKENHI (JP16H06333 and 18K14119), JST‐CREST program (JPMJCR20B1, JMJCR20B5, and JPMJCR1993), JSPS A3 Foresight Program, and Kazato Research Encouragement Prize. H.‐P.K. acknowledges funding from Academy of Finland through project no. 311058. A.V.K. thanks the German Research Foundation (DFG), project KR 4866/2‐1 for the support. The authors thank CSC Finland, HRLS Stuttgart, Germany, and TU Dresden (Taurus cluster) for the generous grants of computer time. P.‐W.C. appreciates the project support of Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology: Grants MOST 107‐2119‐M‐007‐011‐MY2 and MOST 106‐2628‐M‐007‐003‐MY3. S.L. acknowledges the support from JSPS‐KAKENHI (19K15399).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 311058
Detailed Information: 311058 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Advanced Materials on 19 February 2021, available online: