University of Oulu

Lehtovirta, M.; Matthews, L.A.; Laitinen, T.T.; Nuotio, J.; Niinikoski, H.; Rovio, S.P.; Lagström, H.; Viikari, J.S.A.; Rönnemaa, T.; Jula, A.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Raitakari, O.T.; Pahkala, K. Achievement of the Targets of the 20-Year Infancy-Onset Dietary Intervention—Association with Metabolic Profile from Childhood to Adulthood. Nutrients 2021, 13, 533.

Achievement of the targets of the 20-year infancy-onset dietary intervention : association with metabolic profile from childhood to adulthood

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Author: Lehtovirta, Miia1,2; Matthews, Laurie A.1,2; Laitinen, Tomi T.1,2,3;
Organizations: 1Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
2Centre for Population Health Research, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3Paavo Nurmi Centre, Sports & Exercise Medicine Unit, Department of Physical Activity and Health, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
4Heart Center, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
5Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
6Department of Public Health, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
7Division of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
8Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Institute for Health and Welfare, 20750 Turku, Finland
9Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu & Biocenter Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
10NMR Metabolomics Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland
11Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-04-22


The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) is a prospective infancy-onset randomized dietary intervention trial targeting dietary fat quality and cholesterol intake, and favoring consumption of vegetables, fruit, and whole-grains. Diet (food records) and circulating metabolites were studied at six time points between the ages of 9–19 years (n = 549–338). Dietary targets for this study were defined as (1) the ratio of saturated fat (SAFA) to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA + PUFA) < 1:2, (2) intake of SAFA < 10% of total energy intake, (3) fiber intake ≥ 80th age-specific percentile, and (4) sucrose intake ≤ 20th age-specific percentile. Metabolic biomarkers were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics. Better adherence to the dietary targets, regardless of study group allocation, was assoiated with higher serum proportion of PUFAs, lower serum proportion of SAFAs, and a higher degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Achieving ≥ 1 dietary target resulted in higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, lower circulating LDL subclass lipid concentrations, and lower circulating lipid concentrations in medium and small high-density lipoprotein subclasses compared to meeting 0 targets. Attaining more dietary targets (≥2) was associated with a tendency to lower lipid concentrations of intermediate-density lipoprotein and very low-density lipoprotein subclasses. Thus, adherence to dietary targets is favorably associated with multiple circulating fatty acids and lipoprotein subclass lipid concentrations, indicative of better cardio-metabolic health.

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Series: Nutrients
ISSN: 2072-6643
ISSN-E: 2072-6643
ISSN-L: 2072-6643
Volume: 13
Issue: 2
Article number: 533
DOI: 10.3390/nu13020533
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
3141 Health care science
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland [grant numbers: 206374, 294834, 251360, 275595, 307996, and 322112]; the Juho Vainio Foundation; the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research; the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture; the Finnish Cultural Foundation; the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation; Special Governmental grants for Health Sciences Research; Turku University Hospital; the Yrjö Johansson Foundation; the Finnish Medical Foundation; and the Turku University Foundation.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 294834
Detailed Information: 294834 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (