University of Oulu

Aguilar, M., Cavasonza, L., Allen, M., et al. (2021) Properties of Iron Primary Cosmic Rays: Results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer. Physical Review Letters, 126 (4), 041104,

Properties of iron primary cosmic rays : results from the alpha magnetic spectrometer

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Author: Aguilar, M.1; Cavasonza, L. Ali2,3; Allen, M. S.4;
Alpat, B.5; Ambrosi, G.5; Arruda, L.6; Attig, N.7,8; Barao, F.6; Barrin, L.9; Bartoloni, A.10; Basegmez-du Pree, S.11; Battiston, R.12,13; Behlmann, M.4; Beischer, B.2,3; Berdugo, J.1; Bertucci, B.5,14; Bindi, V15; de Boer, W.16; Bollweg, K.17; Borgia, B.10,18; Boschini, M. J.19; Bourquin, M.20; Bueno, E. F.11; Burger, J.4; Burger, W. J.12; Burmeister, S.21; Cai, X. D.4; Capell, M.4; Casaus, J.1; Castellini, G.22; Cervelli, F.23; Chang, Y. H.24,25,26; Chen, G. M.27,28; Chen, G. R.29; Chen, H. S.27,28; Chen, Y.20,29; Cheng, L.29; Chou, H. Y.25,26; Chouridou, S.2,3; Choutko, V4; Chung, C. H.2,3; Clark, C.4,17; Coignet, G.30; Consolandi, C.15; Contin, A.31,32; Corti, C.15; Cui, Z.33,29; Dadzie, K.4; Delgado, C.1; Della Torre, S.19; Demirkoz, M. B.34; Derome, L.35; Di Falco, S.23; Di Felice, V36; Diaz, C.1; Dimiccoli, F.12; von Doetinchem, P.15; Dong, F.37; Donnini, F.36; Duranti, M.5; Egorov, A.4; Eline, A.4; Feng, J.4; Fiandrini, E.5,14; Fisher, P.4; Formato, V36; Freeman, C.15; Galaktionov, Y.4; Gamez, C.1; Garcia-Lopez, R. J.38,39; Gargiulo, C.9; Gast, H.2,3; Gervasi, M.19,40; Giovacchini, F.1; Gomez-Coral, D. M.15; Gong, J.37; Goy, C.30; Grabski, V41; Grandi, D.19,40; Graziani, M.5,14; Haino, S.24; Han, K. C.42; Hashmani, R. K.34; He, Z. H.43; Heber, B.21; Hsieh, T. H.4; Hu, J. Y.27,28; Incagli, M.23; Jang, W. Y.44; Jia, Yi4; Jinchi, H.42; Kanishev, K.12; Khiali, B.36; Kim, G. N.44; Kirn, Th2,3; Konyushikhin, M.4; Kounina, O.4; Kounine, A.4; Koutsenko, V4; Kuhlman, A.15; Kulemzin, A.4; La Vacca, G.19,40; Laudi, E.9; Laurenti, G.31; Lazzizzera, I12,13; Lebedev, A.4; Lee, H. T.45; Lee, S. C.24; Li, J. Q.37; Li, M.2,3; Li, Q.37; Li, S.2,3; Li, J. H.33; Li, Z. H.27,28; Liang, J.33; Light, C.15; Lin, C. H.24; Lippert, T.7,8; Liu, J. H.46; Liu, Z.20; Lu, S. Q.24; Lu, Y. S.27; Luebelsmeyer, K.2,3; Luo, J. Z.37; Luo, Xi29; Lyu, S. S.43; Machate, F.2,3; Mana, C.1; Marin, J.1; Marquardt, J.21; Martin, T.4,17; Martinez, G.1; Masi, N.31,32; Maurin, D.35; Menchaca-Rocha, A.41; Meng, Q.37; Mikhailov, V. V.47; Mo, D. C.43; Molero, M.1; Mott, P.4,17; Mussolin, L.5,14; Negrete, J.15; Nikonov, N.2,3; Nozzoli, F.12; Oliva, A.31; Orcinha, M.6; Palermo, M.15; Palmonari, F.31,32; Paniccia, M.20; Pashnin, A.4; Pauluzzi, M.5,14; Pensotti, S.19,40; Phan, H. D.4; Piandani, R.16; Plyaskin, V4; Poluianov, S.48; Qin, X.4; Qu, Z. Y.24; Quadrani, L.31,32; Rancoita, P. G.19; Rapin, D.20; Conde, A. Reina38,39; Robyn, E.20; Rosier-Lees, S.30; Rozhkov, A.4; Rozza, D.19,40; Sagdeev, R.49; Schael, S.2,3; von Dratzig, A. Schulz2,3; Schwering, G.2,3; Seo, E. S.50; Shakfa, Z.34; Shan, B. S.51; Siedenburg, T.2,3; Solano, C.4; Song, J. W.33; Song, X. J.29; Sonnabend, R.2,3; Strigari, L.10; Su, T.29; Sun, Q.33; Sun, Z. T.27,28; Tacconi, M.19,40; Tang, X. W.27; Tang, Z. C.27; Tian, J.5,14; Ting, Samuel C. C.4,9; Ting, S. M.4; Tomassetti, N.5,14; Torsti, J.52; Tuysuz, C.34; Urban, T.4,17; Usoskin, I48; Vagelli, V.5,53; Vainio, R.52; Valencia-Otero, M.25,26; Valente, E.10,18; Valtonen, E.52; Acosta, M. Vazquez38,39; Vecchi, M.11; Velasco, M.1; Vialle, J. P.30; Wang, C. X.33; Wang, L.46,33; Wang, L. Q.33; Wang, N. H.33; Wang, Q. L.46; Wang, S.15; Wang, X.4; Wang, Yu33; Wang, Z. M.29; Wei, J.20; Weng, Z. L.4; Wu, H.37; Xiong, R. Q.37; Xu, W.33,29; Yan, Q.4; Yang, Y.54; Yashin, I. I.47; Yi, H.37; Yu, Y. M.43; Yu, Z. Q.27; Zannoni, M.19,40; Zhang, C.27; Zhang, F.27,28; Zhang, F. Z.27,28; Zhang, J. H.37; Zhang, Z.4; Zhao, F.27,28; Zheng, C.29; Zheng, Z. M.51; Zhuang, H. L.27; Zhukov, V2,3; Zichichi, A.31,32; Zimmermann, N.2,3; Zuccon, P.12,13
Organizations: 1Ctr Invest Energet Medioambientales & Tecnol CIEM, Madrid 28040, Spain.
2Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 1, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
3Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, JARA FAME, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.
4MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA.
5Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
6Lab Instrutnent & Fis Expt Particulas LIP, P-1649003 Lisbon, Portugal.
7Res Ctr Julich, Julich Supercomp Ctr, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
8Res Ctr Julich, JARA, FAME, D-52425 Julich, Germany.
9European Org Nucl Res CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland.
10Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma 1, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
11Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, POB 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands.
12Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, TIFPA, I-38123 Povo, Italy.
13Univ Trento, I-38123 Trento, Italy.
14Univ Perugia, I-06100 Perugia, Italy.
15Univ Hawaii, Phys S & Astron Dept, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
16Karlsruhe Inst Technol KIT, Inst Experimentellet Teilchenphys, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.
17Natl Aeronaut & Space Adm Johnson Space Ctr JSC, Houston, TX 77058 USA.
18Univ Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
19Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
20Univ Geneva, DPNC, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
21Christian Alberts Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Angew Phys, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.
22CNR, IROE, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
23Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, I-56100 Pisa, Italy.
24Acad Sinica, Inst Phys, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
25Natl Cent Univ NCU, Phys Dept, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
26Natl Cent Univ NCU, Ctr High Energy & High Field Phys, Taoyuan 32054, Taiwan.
27Chinese Acad Sci, Inst High Energy Phys IHEP, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
28Univ Chinese Acad Sci UCAS, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
29Shandong Inst Adv Technol SDIAT, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
30Univ Grenoble Alpes, Univ Savoie Mt Blanc, CNRS, LAPP IN2P3, F-74000 Annecy, France.
31Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
32Univ Bologna, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
33Shandong Univ SDU, Jinan 250100, Shandong, Peoples R China.
34Middle East Tech Univ METU, Dept Phys, TR-06800 Ankara, Turkey.
35Univ Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble INP, CNRS, LPSC IN2P3, F-38000 Grenoble, France.
36Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
37Southeast Univ SEU, Nanjing 210096, Peoples R China.
38Inst Astrofis Canarias IAC, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Spain.
39Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain.
40Univ Milano Bicocca, I-20126 Milan, Italy.
41Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Fis, Ciudad De Mexico 01000, Mexico.
42Natl Chung Shan Inst Sci & Technol NCSIST, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan.
43Sun Yat Sen Univ SYSU, Guangzhou 510275, Peoples R China.
44Kyungpook Natl Univ, CHEP, Daegu 41566, South Korea.
45Acad Sinica Grid Ctr ASGC, Taipei 11529, Taiwan.
46Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Elect Engn IEE, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China.
47NRNU MEPhl Moscow Engn Phys Inst, Moscow 115409, Russia.
48Univ Oulu, Sodankyla Geophys Observ & Space Phys & Astron Re, Oulu 90014, Finland.
49Univ Maryland, East West Ctr Space Sci, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
50Univ Maryland, IPST, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.
51Beihang Univ BUAA, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China.
52Univ Turku, Dept Phys & Astron, Space Res Lab, Turku 20014, Finland.
53Agenzia Spaziale Italiana ASI, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
54Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Tainan 70101, Taiwan.
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Language: English
Published: American Physical Society, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-04-28


We report the observation of new properties of primary iron (Fe) cosmic rays in the rigidity range 2.65 GV to 3.0 TV with 0.62×10⁶ iron nuclei collected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment on the International Space Station. Above 80.5 GV the rigidity dependence of the cosmic ray Fe flux is identical to the rigidity dependence of the primary cosmic ray He, C, and O fluxes, with the Fe/O flux ratio being constant at 0.155±0.006. This shows that unexpectedly Fe and He, C, and O belong to the same class of primary cosmic rays which is different from the primary cosmic rays Ne, Mg, and Si class.

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Series: Physical review letters
ISSN: 0031-9007
ISSN-E: 1079-7114
ISSN-L: 0031-9007
Volume: 126
Issue: 4
Article number: 041104
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.041104
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: We are grateful for important physics discussions with Pasquale Blasi, Fiorenza Donato, Jonathan Feng, and Igor Moskalenko. We thank former NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin for his dedication to the legacy of the ISS as a scientific laboratory and his decision for NASA to fly AMS as a DOE payload. We also acknowledge the continuous support of the NASA leadership, particularly William H. Gerstenmaier, and of the JSC and MSFC flight control teams that have allowed AMS to operate optimally on the ISS for over nine years. We are grateful for the support of Jim Siegrist, Glen Crawford, and their staff of the DOE including resources from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. We gratefully acknowledge the strong support from CERN including Fabiola Gianotti, and the CERN IT department including Bernd Panzer-Steindel, and from the European Space Agency including Johann-Dietrich Wörner and Simonetta Di Pippo. We also acknowledge the continuous support from MIT and its School of Science, Michael Sipser, and the Laboratory for Nuclear Science, Boleslaw Wyslouch. Research supported by: Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Institute of Electrical Engineering, China Academy of Space Technology, National Natural Science Foundation, and Ministry of Science and Technology, the China Scholarship Council, the Shandong, Jiangsu, and Guangdong provincial governments, Shandong University, and Shandong Institute of Advanced Technology, China; the Academy of Finland, Project No. 321882, Finland; CNRS/IN2P3 and CNES, France; Pascale Ehrenfreund, DLR under Grants No. 50OO1403 and 50OO1805 and JARA-HPC under Project No. JARA0052, Germany; INFN and ASI under ASI-INFN Agreements No. 2014-037-R.1-2017 and No. 2019-19-HH.0 and ASI-University of Perugia Agreement No. 2019-2-HH.0, Italy; CHEP and NRF under Grant No. NRF-2018R1A6A1A06024970 at Kyungpook National University, Korea; the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología and UNAM, Mexico; NWO under Grant No. 680-1-004, Netherlands; FCT under Grant No. CERN/FIS-PAR/0013/2019, Portugal; the Ministry of Science and Higher Education under Project No. 0723-2020-0040, Russia; CIEMAT, IAC, CDTI, and SEIDI-MINECO under Grants No. PID2019–107988 GB-C21/C22, No. CEX2019-000920-S, and No. MDM-2015-0509, Spain; the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), federal and cantonal authorities, and the Fondation Dr. Manfred Steuer, Switzerland; Academia Sinica and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) under Grants No. 107-2119-M-006-015-MY3, No. 109-2112-M-001-029, and No. CDA-105-M06, former Presidents of Academia Sinica Yuan-Tseh Lee and Chi-Huey Wong and former Ministers of MOST Maw-Kuen Wu and Luo-Chuan Lee, Taiwan; the Turkish Energy, Nuclear and Mineral Research Agency (TENMAK) under Grant No. 2020TAEK(CERN)A5.H1.F5-26, Turkey; and NSF Grants No. 1455202 and No. 1551980, Wyle Laboratories Grant No. 2014/T72497, and NASA NESSF Grant No. HELIO15F-0005, USA.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 321882
Detailed Information: 321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.