University of Oulu

Kanavakis, G.; Silvola, A.-S.; Halazonetis, D.; Lähdesmäki, R.; Pirttiniemi, P. Incisor Occlusion Affects Profile Shape Variation in Middle-Aged Adults. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 800.

Incisor occlusion affects profile shape variation in middle-aged adults

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Author: Kanavakis, Georgios1,2,3; Silvola, Anna-Sofia3,4; Halazonetis, Demetrios5;
Organizations: 1Department of Pediatric Oral Health and Orthodontics, UZB-University Center for Dental Medicine, University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 40, CH-4058 Basel, Switzerland
2Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA
3Oral Development and Orthodontics, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Medical Faculty, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
4Oral and Maxillofacial Department, Oulu University Hospital, Medical Research Center Oulu (MRC Oulu), FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
5Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, GR-11527 Athens, Greece
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-04-29


Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of overjet and overbite on profile shape in middle–aged individuals.

Methods: The study population comprised 1754 46-year-old individuals, members of the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Their profile images were digitized using 48 landmarks and semi-landmarks. The subsequent landmark coordinates were then transformed to shape coordinates through Procrustes Superimposition, and final data were reduced into Principal Components (PCs) of shape. Overjet and overbite values were measured manually, during a clinical examination. A multivariate regression model was developed to evaluate the effect of overjet and overbite on profile shape.

Results: The first nine PCs described more than 90% of profile shape variation in the sample and were used as the shape variables in all subsequent analyses. Overjet predicted 21.3% of profile shape in the entire sample (η²overjet = 0.213; p %lt; 0.001), while the effect of overbite was weaker (η²overbite = 0.138; p < 0.001). In males, the equivalent effects were 22.6% for overjet and 14% for overbite, and in females, 25.5% and 13.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: Incisor occlusion has a noteworthy effect on profile shape in middle-aged adults. Its impact becomes more significant taking into consideration the large variety of genetic and environmental factors affecting soft tissue profile.

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Series: Journal of clinical medicine
ISSN: 2077-0383
ISSN-E: 2077-0383
ISSN-L: 2077-0383
Volume: 10
Issue: 4
Article number: 800
DOI: 10.3390/jcm10040800
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 313 Dentistry
Funding: NFBC1966 received financial support from University of Oulu Grant no. 24000692, Oulu University Hospital Grant no. 24301140, ERDF European Regional Development Fund Grant no. 539/2010 A31592.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (