University of Oulu

Lee, J.-H.; Jee, G.; Kwak, Y.-S.; Hwang, H.; Seppälä, A.; Song, I.-S.; Turunen, E.; Lee, D.-Y. Polar Middle Atmospheric Responses to Medium Energy Electron (MEE) Precipitation Using Numerical Model Simulations. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 133.

Polar middle atmospheric responses to medium energy electron (MEE) precipitation using numerical model simulations

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Author: Lee, Ji-Hee1; Jee, Geonhwa1,2; Kwak, Young-Sil3,4;
Organizations: 1Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon 21990, Korea
2Department of Polar Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Incheon 21990, Korea
3Space Science Division, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055, Korea
4Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Korea University of Science and Technology, Incheon 21990, Korea
5Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
6Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, 99600 Tähteläntie, Finland
7Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 8.4 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-04-30


Energetic particle precipitation (EPP) is known to be an important source of chemical changes in the polar middle atmosphere in winter. Recent modeling studies further suggest that chemical changes induced by EPP can also cause dynamic changes in the middle atmosphere. In this study, we investigated the atmospheric responses to the precipitation of medium-to-high energy electrons (MEEs) over the period 2005–2013 using the Specific Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (SD-WACCM). Our results show that the MEE precipitation significantly increases the amounts of NOₓ and HOₓ, resulting in mesospheric and stratospheric ozone losses by up to 60% and 25% respectively during polar winter. The MEE-induced ozone loss generally increases the temperature in the lower mesosphere but decreases the temperature in the upper mesosphere with large year-to-year variability, not only by radiative effects but also by adiabatic effects. The adiabatic effects by meridional circulation changes may be dominant for the mesospheric temperature changes. In particular, the meridional circulation changes occasionally act in opposite ways to vary the temperature in terms of height variations, especially at around the solar minimum period with low geomagnetic activity, which cancels out the temperature changes to make the average small in the polar mesosphere for the 9-year period.

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Series: Atmosphere
ISSN: 2073-4433
ISSN-E: 2073-4433
ISSN-L: 2073-4433
Volume: 12
Issue: 2
Article number: 133
DOI: 10.3390/atmos12020133
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This research was funded by the grants PE21020 & PE20360 from the Korea Polar Research Institute.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (