University of Oulu

Hjerppe, J.; Rodas, S.; Korvala, J.; Pesonen, P.; Kaisanlahti, A.; Özcan, M.; Suojanen, J.; Reunanen, J. Surface Roughness and Streptococcus mutans Adhesion on Metallic and Ceramic Fixed Prosthodontic Materials after Scaling. Materials 2021, 14, 1027.

Surface roughness and Streptococcus mutans adhesion on metallic and ceramic fixed prosthodontic materials after scaling

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Author: Hjerppe, Jenni1; Rodas, Sampo2; Korvala, Johanna2;
Organizations: 1Clinic of Reconstructive Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, University of Zürich, 8032 Zürich, Switzerland
2Biocenter Oulu & Cancer and Translational Medicine Research Unit, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
3Infrastructure for Population Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
4Center of Dental Medicine, Division of Dental Biomaterials, Clinic for Reconstructive Dentistry, University of Zürich, 8032 Zürich, Switzerland
5Päijät-Häme Joint Authority for Health and Wellbeing, Department of Oral and Maxillo-facial Surgery, 15850 Lahti, Finland
6Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Centre, Department of Plastic Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 4.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-04-30


The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of fixed prosthodontic materials after polishing or roughening with a stainless steel curette or ultrasonic scaler and to examine the effect of these on Streptococcus mutans adhesion and biofilm accumulation. Thirty specimens (10 × 10 × 3 mm³) of zirconia (Zr), pressed lithium disilicate (LDS-Press), milled lithium disilicate glazed (LDS-Glaze), titanium grade V (Ti) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) were divided into three groups (n = 10) according to surface treatment: polished (C), roughened with stainless steel curette (SC), roughened with ultrasonic scaler (US). Surface roughness values (Sa, Sq) were measured with a spinning disc confocal microscope, and contact angles and surface free energy (SFE) were measured with a contact angle meter. The specimens were covered with sterilized human saliva and immersed into Streptococcus mutans suspensions for bacterial adhesion. The biofilm was allowed to form for 24 h. Sa values were in the range of 0.008–0.139 µm depending on the material and surface treatment. Curette and ultrasonic scaling increased the surface roughness in LDS-Glaze (p < 0.05), Ti (p < 0.01) and CoCr (p < 0.001), however, surface roughness did not affect bacterial adhesion. Zr C and US had a higher bacterial adhesion percentage compared to LDS-Glaze C and US (p = 0.03). There were no differences between study materials in terms of biofilm accumulation.

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Series: Materials
ISSN: 1996-1944
ISSN-E: 1996-1944
ISSN-L: 1996-1944
Volume: 14
Issue: 4
Article number: 1027
DOI: 10.3390/ma14041027
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3122 Cancers
313 Dentistry
Funding: This study was funded by Finnish Dental Society Apollonia (J.H.), Eemil Aaltonen Foundation (J.S.), Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District research funds (J.S.) and Academy of Finland grants 299749 and 328768 (J.R.).
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 299749
Detailed Information: 299749 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
328768 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (