University of Oulu

J. Phys. Chem. C 2021, 125, 1, 973–988, Publication Date:December 24, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c08597

Trends in carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen core in the x-ray absorption spectroscopy of carbon nanomaterials : a guide for the perplexed

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Author: Sainio, Sami1,2; Wester, Niklas3; Aarva, Anja4;
Organizations: 1icroelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, 90570 Oulu, Finland
2Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025, United States
3Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo, Finland
4Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, 00076 Aalto, Finland
5Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States
6Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Aalto University, P.O. Box 15100, FI 00076 Aalto, Finland
7Center for Nanotechnology, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035, United States
8Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4500, 90570 Oulu, Finland
9Department of Electronics and Nanoengineering, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, 00076 Aalto, Finland
10Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021, Russia
11Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3.5 MB)
Persistent link: http://urn.fi/urn:nbn:fi-fe2021050528879
Language: English
Published: American Chemical Society, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-05
Description:

Abstract

Successful deployment of carbon nanomaterials in many applications, such as sensing, energy storage, and catalysis, relies on the selection, synthesis, and tailoring of the surface properties. Predictive analysis of the behavior is difficult without detailed knowledge of the differences between various carbon nanomaterials and their surface functionalization, thus leaving the selection process to traditional trial-and-error work. The present characterization fills this knowledge gap for carbon nanomaterial surface properties with respect to chemical states and functionalization. We present an overview of the chemical trends that can be extracted from soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra on an extended set of nonideal carbon nanomaterials as a function of sp2 bonded carbon and bond ordering. In particular, the surface chemical state, the presence of long-range order in the carbon matrix, and a qualitative estimation of the amount of oxygen and nitrogen and their respective functional group formation on the material surface, together with the detailed material fabrication parameters, are reported. The results expand our understanding of carbon nanomaterial functionalization, which can support material selection in practice, provided that the specifications of the application are known.

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Series: The journal of physical chemistry. C
ISSN: 1932-7447
ISSN-E: 1932-7455
ISSN-L: 1932-7447
Volume: 125
Issue: 1
Pages: 973 - 988
DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c08597
OADOI: https://oadoi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c08597
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 116 Chemical sciences
114 Physical sciences
Subjects:
Funding: Carbodeon is acknowledged for providing the DND samples. Use of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under contract no. DE-AC02-76SF00515. The authors wish to acknowledge CSC-IT Center for Science, Finland, for computational resources. S.S. acknowledges funding from the Instrumentarium Science Foundation and Walter Ahlström Foundation. M.Mo. acknowledges support from the Slovenian Research Agency, grant P2-0082. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement no. 841621. M.K., H.L., and K.K. acknowledge funding from the Academy of Finland, grants 298297 and 325185 (Nigella). T.L. acknowledges funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program H2020-FETPROACT-2018-01 under grant agreement no. 824070. N.W. acknowledges funding from Emil Aaltonen Foundation and Foundation for Aalto University Science and Technology. Jarkko Etula is acknowledged for help with depositing catalyst layers for CNF growth. Henrika Granbohm is acknowledged for the synthesis of GO.
Copyright information: © 2020 American Chemical Society. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Non-Commercial No Derivative Works (CC-BY-NC-ND) Attribution License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article, and creation of adaptations, all for non-commercial purposes.
  https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/