University of Oulu

H. Kemppi, M.A. Finnilä, G.S. Lorite, M. Nelo, J. Juuti, M. Kokki, H. Kokki, J. Räsänen, A. Mobasheri, S. Saarakkala, Design and development of poly-L/D-lactide copolymer and barium titanate nanoparticle 3D composite scaffolds using breath figure method for tissue engineering applications, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 199, 2021, 111530, ISSN 0927-7765,

Design and development of poly-L/D-lactide copolymer and barium titanate nanoparticle 3D composite scaffolds using breath figure method for tissue engineering applications

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Author: Kemppi, H.1; Finnilä, M. A.1; Lorite, G. S.2;
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90220, Finland
2Microelectronics Research Unit, Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, FI-90570, Finland
3Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, FI-7002, Finland
4School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, FI-70210, Finland
5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FI- 00099, Finland
6Department of Regenerative Medicine, State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, Vilnius, LT-08406, Lithuania
7University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Orthopedics, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Utrecht, 508 GA, the Netherlands
8Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, FI-90220, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-07


In tissue engineering, the scaffold topography influences the adhesion, proliferation, and function of cells. Specifically, the interconnected porosity is crucial for cell migration and nutrient delivery in 3D scaffolds. The objective of this study was to develop a 3D porous composite scaffold for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications by incorporating barium titanate nanoparticles (BTNPs) into a poly-L/D-lactide copolymer (PLDLA) scaffold using the breath figure method. The porous scaffold fabrication utilised 96/04 PLDLA, dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), and different types of BTNPs, including uncoated BTNPs, Al2O3-coated BTNPs, and SiO2-coated BTNPs. The BTNPs were incorporated into the polymer scaffold, which was subsequently analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The biocompatibility of each scaffold was tested using ovine bone marrow stromal stem cells. The cell morphology, viability, and proliferation were evaluated using FE-SEM, LIVE/DEAD staining, and Prestoblue assay. Porous 3D composite scaffolds were successfully produced, and it was observed that the incorporation of uncoated BTNPs increased the average pore size from 1.6 μm (PLDLA) to 16.2 μm (PLDLA/BTNP). The increased pore size in the PLDLA/BTNP scaffolds provided a suitable porosity for the cells to migrate inside the scaffold, while in the pure PLDLA scaffolds with their much smaller pore size, cells elongated on the surface. To conclude, the breath figure method was successfully used to develop a PLDLA/BTNP scaffold. The use of uncoated BTNPs resulted in a composite scaffold with an optimal pore size while maintaining the honeycomb-like structure. The composite scaffolds were biocompatible and yielded promising structures for future tissue engineering applications.

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Series: Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
ISSN: 0927-7765
ISSN-E: 1873-4367
ISSN-L: 0927-7765
Volume: 199
Article number: 111530
DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2020.111530
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 114 Physical sciences
318 Medical biotechnology
216 Materials engineering
Funding: This project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation programme under grant agreement No 814558 “RESTORE”. Author G. S. L. acknowledges the support of the Academy of Finland (decision no. 317437). Author J. J. acknowledges the support of the Academy of Finland (decision no. 318203). This work was carried out with the support of Biocenter Oulu, Light and Electron Microscopy Core Facilities, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, and the Centre for Material Analysis, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
EU Grant Number: (814558) RESTORE - User-centred smart nanobiomaterial-based 3D matrices for chondral repair
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 317437
Detailed Information: 317437 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
318203 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (