University of Oulu

Roohollah Noori, Elmira Ansari, Rabin Bhattarai, Qiuhong Tang, Saber Aradpour, Mohsen Maghrebi, Ali Torabi Haghighi, Lars Bengtsson, Bjørn Kløve, Complex dynamics of water quality mixing in a warm mono-mictic reservoir, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 777, 2021, 146097, ISSN 0048-9697,

Complex dynamics of water quality mixing in a warm mono-mictic reservoir

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Author: Noori, Roohollah1; Ansari, Elmira2; Bhattarai, Rabin3;
Organizations: 1Water, Energy and Environmental Engineering Research Unit, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland
2School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
4Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China
5University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
6Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Art, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
7Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Box 117, 221 007 Lund, Sweden
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 3 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-07


Cycling of water quality constituents in lakes is affected by thermal stratification and homo-thermal conditions and other factors such as oligotrophication, eutrophication, and microbial activities. In addition, hydrological variability can cause greater differences in water residence time and cycling of constituents in man-made lakes (reservoirs) than in natural lakes. Thus, investigations are needed on vertical mixing of constituents in new impounded reservoirs, especially those constructed to supply domestic water. In this study, sampling campaigns were conducted in the Sabalan reservoir, Iran, to investigate vertical changes in constituent concentrations during the year in periods with thermal stratification and homo-thermal conditions. The results revealed incomplete mixing of constituents, even during cold months when the reservoir was homo-thermal. These conditions interacted to create a bottom-up regulated reservoir with sediment that released settled pollutants, impairing water quality in the Sabalan reservoir during both thermal stratification and homo-thermal conditions. Analysis of total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations revealed that the reservoir was eutrophic. External pollution loads, internal cycling of pollutants diffusing out from bottom sediments, reductions in inflow to the reservoir, and reservoir operations regulated vertical mixing and concentrations of constituents in the Sabalan reservoir throughout the year.

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Series: Science of the total environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
ISSN-E: 1879-1026
ISSN-L: 0048-9697
Volume: 777
Article number: 146097
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146097
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 218 Environmental engineering
Funding: This research was supported by the Ardabil Regional Water Authority Major Project: Reduced-Order Modeling of Eutrophication and Water Quality of the Most Important Dams in Ardabil Province (Case Study: Sabalan Dam) (No. ARE-93037). The corresponding author has benefited from the Arctic Interactions (ArcI) Visit Grant program, Profi 4, University of Oulu during this research.
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (