University of Oulu

Juha Junttila, Jukka Perttunen, Juhani Raatikainen, Keep the faith in banking: New evidence for the effects of negative interest rates based on the case of Finnish cooperative banks, International Review of Financial Analysis, Volume 75, 2021, 101724, ISSN 1057-5219,

Keep the faith in banking : new evidence for the effects of negative interest rates based on the case of Finnish cooperative banks

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Author: Junttila, Juha1; Perttunen, Jukka2; Raatikainen, Juhani1
Organizations: 1University of Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, Finland
2Oulu Business School, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Elsevier, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-12


This paper analyses the profitability of Finnish cooperative banks during the period of negative nominal interest rates. Contrary to expectations, the continuous decline in money market interest rates between 2009 and 2014, and the following negative rate era, did not have adverse effects on the profitability of banks at the beginning of negative interest rate period. Based on especially using a risk-adjusted measure for bank profitability, these results contrast with previous findings. In our findings, the increasing wholesale funding (WSF) ratio seems to be an important factor. However, after 2017 the banks have not been able to improve especially their risk-adjusted profitability so strongly anymore, because the WSF and the development of other than net interest margin returns have been in negative connection to it. In addition, the unconventional monetary policy actions seem not to improve profitability in the most recent observations of our data. These results raise serious concerns for the future of bank profitability during the prolonged period of negative interest rates.

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Series: International review of financial analysis
ISSN: 1057-5219
ISSN-E: 1873-8079
ISSN-L: 1057-5219
Volume: 75
Article number: 101724
DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2021.101724
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 512 Business and management
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (