University of Oulu

Mishev, A.L., Koldobskiy, S.A., Kocharov, L.G. et al. GLE # 67 Event on 2 November 2003: An Analysis of the Spectral and Anisotropy Characteristics Using Verified Yield Function and Detrended Neutron Monitor Data. Sol Phys 296, 79 (2021).

GLE # 67 event on 2 November 2003 : an analysis of the spectral and anisotropy characteristics using verified yield function and detrended neutron monitor data

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Author: Mishev, Alexander L.1,2; Koldobskiy, Sergey A.1,2,3; Kocharov, Leon G.2;
Organizations: 1Space Physics and Astronomy Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
3National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow, Russia
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.5 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-12


During Solar Cycle 23 16 ground-level enhancement events were registered by the global neutron monitor network. In this work we focus on the period with increased solar activity during late October – early November 2003 producing a sequence of three events, specifically on ground-level enhancement GLE 67 on 2 November 2003. On the basis of an analysis of neutron monitor and space-borne data we derived the spectra and pitch-angle distribution of high-energy solar particles with their dynamical evolution throughout the event. According to our analysis, the best fit of the spectral and angular properties of solar particles was obtained by a modified power-law rigidity spectrum and a double Gaussian, respectively. The derived angular distribution is consistent with the observations where an early count rate increase at Oulu neutron monitor with asymptotic viewing direction in the anti-Sun direction was registered. The quality of the fit and model constraints were assessed by a forward modeling. The event integrated particle fluence was derived using two different methods. The derived results are briefly discussed.

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Series: Solar physics
ISSN: 0038-0938
ISSN-E: 1573-093X
ISSN-L: 0038-0938
Volume: 296
Article number: 79
DOI: 10.1007/s11207-021-01832-2
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 115 Astronomy and space science
Funding: This work was supported by the Academy of Finland (projects 330064 QUASARE, 321882 ESPERA). The work on comparative analysis of particle fluences was supported by the Russian Science Foundation project no. 20-72-10170. Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 330064
Detailed Information: 330064 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
321882 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Author(s) 2021. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit