University of Oulu

Shaikh, R, Nippolainen, E, Virtanen, V, et al. Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to biochemical changes related to various cartilage injuries. J Raman Spectrosc. 2021; 52: 796– 804.

Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to biochemical changes related to various cartilage injuries

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Author: Shaikh, Rubina1,2; Nippolainen, Ervin1,2; Virtanen, Vesa3;
Organizations: 1Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
2Department of Orthopedics Traumatology and Hand Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
3Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
5School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
6Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-14


Raman spectroscopy is promising in vivo tool in various biomedical applications; moreover, in recent years, its use for characterizing articular cartilage degeneration has been developing. It has also shown potential for scoring the severity of cartilage lesions, which could be useful in determining the optimal treatment strategy during cartilage repair surgery. However, the effect of different cartilage injury types on Raman spectra is unknown. This study aims to investigate the potential of Raman spectroscopy for detecting changes in cartilage due to different injury types. Artificial injuries were induced in cartilage samples using established mechanical and enzymatic approaches to mimic trauma‐induced and natural degeneration. Mechanical damage was induced using surface abrasion (ABR, n = 12) or impact loading (IMP, n = 12), while enzymatic damage was induced using three different treatments: 30 min trypsin digestion (T30, n = 12), 90 min collagenase digestion (C90, n = 12), and 24 h collagenase digestion (C24, n = 12). Raman spectra were obtained from all specimens, and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) was used to distinguish cartilage injury types from their respective controls. PLS‐DA cross‐validation accuracies were higher for C24 (88%) and IMP (79%) than for C90 (67%), T30 (63%), and ABR (58%) groups. This study indicates that Raman spectroscopy, combined with multivariate analysis, can discern different cartilage injury types. This knowledge could be useful in clinical decision‐making, for example, selecting the optimal treatment remedy during cartilage repair surgery.

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Series: Journal of Raman spectroscopy
ISSN: 0377-0486
ISSN-E: 1097-4555
ISSN-L: 0377-0486
Volume: 52
Issue: 4
Pages: 796 - 804
DOI: 10.1002/jrs.6062
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3126 Surgery, anesthesiology, intensive care, radiology
Funding: The MIRACLE project‐Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme‐H2020‐ICT‐2017‐1 (grant agreement 780598), Academy of Finland (project 315820), Kuopio University Hospital (VTR project 5203111), and Doctoral Programme in Science, Technology, and Computing (SCITECO) of the University of Eastern Finland financially supported this study.
EU Grant Number: (780598) MIRACLE - Mid-infrared arthroscopy innovative imaging system for real-time clinical in depth examination and diagnosis of degenerative joint diseases
Copyright information: © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.