University of Oulu

Laukka, A.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Fabritius, T. The Atmosphere’s Effect on Stainless Steel Slabs’ Oxide Formation in a CH4-Fuelled Reheating Furnace. Metals 2021, 11, 621.

The atmosphere’s effect on stainless steel slabs’ oxide formation in a CH₄-fuelled reheating furnace

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Author: Laukka, Aleksi1; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka1; Fabritius, Timo1
Organizations: 1Process Metallurgy Group, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 5.1 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-20


Utilising the oxyfuel practice for CH₄-fuelled combustion has positive effects on the emissions, efficiency and cost of high temperature furnace practices. However, especially in older installations, oxyfuel usage requires retrofitting and alters the atmosphere in which the oxidation of the steel occurs, when compared to using air as the oxidiser. Stainless steel slab oxide growth during reheating was studied in different atmospheres. The simulated post-burn atmospheres from oxyfuel, lean oxyfuel and air-fuel practices were used to compare oxide-scale layer growth and morphology during simulated typical AISI 304 stainless steel slab reheating prior to hot rolling. Thermogravimetric measurements, glow discharge optical emission spectrometer (GDOES) and field-emission scanning electron microscope energy dispersive X-ray (FESEM-EDS) methodology were applied to discern differences between oxide growth and inner oxide layer morphology between the three practices. Switching from air to oxyfuel practice at a single temperature had the same increasing effect on the scale formation amount as a 25 °C temperature increase in air atmosphere. Inner oxide layer depth profiling revealed C, Si and Ni to be the main elements that differed between temperatures and atmospheres. A morphology study showed Si and Ni behaviour to be linked to breakaway oxidation.

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Series: Metals
ISSN: 2075-4701
ISSN-E: 2075-4701
ISSN-L: 2075-4701
Volume: 11
Issue: 4
Article number: 621
DOI: 10.3390/met11040621
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 215 Chemical engineering
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (