University of Oulu

Kabir, R., Mahmud, I., Chowdhury, M. T. H., Vinnakota, D., Jahan, S. S., Siddika, N., … Hoque Apu, E. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccination Intent and Willingness to Pay in Bangladesh: A Cross-Sectional Study. Vaccines, 9(5), 416. doi:10.3390/vaccines9050416

COVID-19 vaccination intent and willingness to pay in Bangladesh : a cross-sectional study

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Author: Kabir, Russell1; Mahmud, Ilias2; Chowdhury, Mohammad Tawfique Hossain3;
Organizations: 1School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, Essex CM1 1SQ, UK
2Department of Public Health, College of Public Health and Health Informatics, Qassim University, Al Bukairiyah 52741, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Dental Public Health, Sapporo Dental College, Dhaka 1230, Bangladesh
4Center for Environmental and Respiratory Health Research (CERH), Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
5CAPABLE-A Cambridge-Led Programme in Bangladesh, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK
6The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital, 0372 Oslo, Norway
7Department of Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Quantitative Health Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.8 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-05-28


This article reports the intent to receive a SARS-COV-2 vaccine, its predictors and willingness to pay in Bangladesh. We carried out an online cross-sectional survey of 697 adults from the general population of Bangladesh in January 2021. A structured questionnaire was used to assess vaccination intent. The questionnaire included sociodemographic variables and health belief model constructs which may predict vaccination intent. Among the participants, 26% demonstrated a definite intent, 43% probable intent, 24% probable negative, and 7% a definite negative intention. Multivariable logistic regression analyses suggest an association between definite intent and previous COVID-19 infection (OR: 2.86; 95% CI: 1.71–4.78), perceiving COVID-19 as serious (OR: 1.93; 1.04–3.59), the belief that vaccination would make them feel less worried about catching COVID-19 (OR: 4.42; 2.25–8.68), and concerns about vaccine affordability (OR: 1.51; 1.01–2.25). Individuals afraid of the side effects (OR: 0.34; 0.21–0.53) and those who would take the vaccine if the vaccine were taken by many others (OR: 0.44; 0.29–0.67) are less likely to have a definite intent. A definite negative intent is associated with the concern that the vaccine may not be halal (OR: 2.03; 1.04–3.96). Furthermore, 68.4% are willing to pay for the vaccine. The median amount that they are willing to pay is USD 7.08. The study findings reveal that the definite intent to receive the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among the general population varies depending on their COVID-19-related health beliefs and no significant association was found with sociodemographic variables.

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Series: Vaccines
ISSN: 2076-393X
ISSN-E: 2076-393X
ISSN-L: 2076-393X
Volume: 9
Issue: 5
Article number: 416
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines9050416
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3141 Health care science
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (