University of Oulu

Saarinen, A.I.L., Granö, N. & Lehtimäki, T. Self-Reported Cognitive Functions Predict the Trajectory of Paranoid Ideation Over a 15-Year Prospective Follow-Up. Cogn Ther Res 45, 333–342 (2021).

Self-reported cognitive functions predict the trajectory of paranoid ideation over a 15-year prospective follow-up

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Author: Saarinen, Aino I. L.1,2; Granö, Niklas3; Lehtimäki, Terho4
Organizations: 1Research Unit of Psychology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
2Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, P.O. Box 21, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
3Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Clinical Chemistry, Fimlab Laboratories and Finnish Cardiovascular Research Center‑Tampere, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Springer Nature, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-06-04


Background: This study investigated whether self-reported cognitive functions (i.e. task orientation, distractibility, persistence, flexibility, and perseverance) predict the trajectory of paranoid ideation over a 15-year prospective follow-up in adulthood.

Methods: The participants came from the population-based Young Finns study (N = 1210‒1213). Paranoid ideation was assessed with the Paranoid Ideation Scale of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90R) in 1997, 2001, 2007, and 2012. Self-reported cognitive functions were evaluated in 1997 with the Task orientation, Distractibility, Persistence, and Flexibility scales of the DOTS-R (the Revised Dimensions of Temperament Survey) and the Perseverance scale of the FCB-TI (the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour — Temperament Inventory). The data was analyzed using growth curve models that were adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors in childhood and adulthood.

Results: Low self-reported task orientation, low persistence, high distractibility, low flexibility, and high perseverance predicted higher level of paranoid ideation over the 15-year follow-up.

Conclusions: Self-reported cognitive functions seem to predict paranoid ideation over a long-term follow-up. Promoting cognitive functions in early interventions may have long-term protective influences against the development of paranoid ideation in non-clinical populations.

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Series: Cognitive therapy and research
ISSN: 0147-5916
ISSN-E: 1573-2819
ISSN-L: 0147-5916
Volume: 45
Pages: 333 - 342
DOI: 10.1007/s10608-020-10142-z
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 516 Educational sciences
Funding: The Young Finns Study has been financially supported by the Academy of Finland: Grants 322098, 286284, 134309 (Eye), 126925, 121584, 124282, 129378 (Salve), 117797 (Gendi), and 41071 (Skidi); the Social Insurance Institution of Finland; Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Kuopio, Tampere and Turku University Hospitals (grant X51001); the Juho Vainio Foundation; the Sigrid Juselius Foundation; the Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation; the Paavo Nurmi Foundation; the Finnish Foundation of Cardiovascular Research and Finnish Cultural Foundation; the Tampere Tuberculosis Foundation; the Emil Aaltonen Foundation; and Diabetes Research Foundation of Finnish Diabetes Association. Open access funding provided by University of Oulu including Oulu University Hospital.
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