University of Oulu

Mia D. Eriksson, Johan G. Eriksson, Hannu Kautiainen, Minna K. Salonen, Tuija M. Mikkola, Eero Kajantie, Niko Wasenius, Mikaela von Bonsdorff, Päivi Korhonen & Merja K. Laine (2021) Higher carotid-radial pulse wave velocity is associated with non-melancholic depressive symptoms in men – findings from Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, Annals of Medicine, 53:1, 531-540, DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2021.1904277

Higher carotid-radial pulse wave velocity is associated with non-melancholic depressive symptoms in men : findings from Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

Saved in:
Author: Eriksson, Mia D.1; Eriksson, Johan G.2,3,4,5; Kautiainen, Hannu2,6;
Organizations: 1Primary Health Care Unit, Helsinki University Hospital (HUS), Helsinki, Finland
2Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland
3Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
4Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Human Potential Translational Research Programme Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
5Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore, Singapore
6Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland
7Department of Public Health Solutions, Public Health Promotion Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
8Faculty of Medicine, Clinicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
9PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
10Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
11Gerontology Research Center and Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyv€askyl€a, Jyväskylä, Finland
12Department of General Practice, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 1.9 MB)
Persistent link:
Language: English
Published: Informa, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-06-04


Background: Depression and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are major causes of global disease burden that are interrelated through mostly unknown mechanisms. We studied the relationship of melancholic and non-melancholic depressive symptoms with arterial stiffness, an important underlying mechanism of CVD.

Methods: The Helsinki Birth Cohort Study recruited 683 previously extensively phenotyped subjects for this sub-study. Cross-sectional data along with responses regarding depressive symptoms were obtained for each participant. For evaluation of depressive symptoms, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)and subscales were used to measure melancholic and non-melancholic depressive symptoms. Arterial stiffness was assessed as pulse wave velocity (PWV) that was measured between the carotid and radial artery, and carotid and femoral artery.

Results: Of the participants, 532 scored <10 on the BDI and were classified as not having depressive symptoms. Of the 151 participants that scored ≥10 on the BDI, 122 were classified as having non-melancholic depressive symptoms and 29 as having melancholic depressive symptoms. Men had higher carotid-radial PWV (crPWV) values than women (p < .001). A positive relationship between BDI scores and crPWV (p < .001) was found in men. We also found higher crPWV in men with non-melancholic depressive symptoms compared to all others. No such differences were found in women.

Conclusions: Arterial stiffness has a relationship with depressive symptoms and subtypes of depressive symptoms, at least in men. There is a significant relationship between higher PWV and non-melancholic depressive symptoms in men. Due to the intricate nature of the disease causality or directionality is impossible to infer solely based on this study. Further studies into the subtypes of depressive symptoms may be of benefit to understanding depression.

see all

Series: Annals of medicine
ISSN: 0785-3890
ISSN-E: 1365-2060
ISSN-L: 0785-3890
Volume: 53
Issue: 1
Pages: 531 - 540
DOI: 10.1080/07853890.2021.1904277
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
3121 General medicine, internal medicine and other clinical medicine
Funding: The HBCS has been supported by grants from Finska Läkaresällskapet, the Finnish Special Governmental Subsidy for Health Sciences, Academy of Finland [126775, 127437, 129255, 129306, 129907, 130326, 134791, 209072, 210595, 213225, 263924, 275074 and 315690], Samfundet Folkhälsan, Liv och Hälsa, EU FP7 [Developmental Origins of Healthy Aging (DORIAN)] project number 278603, and EU H2020-PHC-2014-Dyna Health grant [633595] and EU Horizon 2020 Award [733206]. LIFECYCLE (all for the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study), European Commission, Horizon 2020 award [733280]. RECAP, Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, Foundation for Diabetes Research, Foundation for Paediatric Research, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation.
EU Grant Number: (633595) DYNAHEALTH - Understanding the dynamic determinants of glucose homeostasis and social capability to promote Healthy and active aging
(733206) LIFECYCLE - Early-life stressors and LifeCycle health
Copyright information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.