University of Oulu

H. Saarnisaari, J. Markkula, T. Paso and T. Bräysy, "Internetwork Time Synchronization of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," in IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 84191-84203, 2021, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3087861

Internetwork time synchronization of mobile Ad Hoc networks

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Author: Saarnisaari, Harri1; Markkula, Juho1; Paso, Tuomas1;
Organizations: 1Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 2.2 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-06-17


Several time synchronous ad hoc networks may operate in the same geographical area. Although network time synchronization within an individual network has been widely discussed, internetwork time synchronization relying on time sources the networks carry has not been addressed. Therefore, this paper proposes an internetwork time synchronization procedure that allows to use one network as a time source and share its time, like a global navigation satellite system time, to other networks. The internetwork time synchronization procedure runs in gateway nodes that could be a member in several networks, and it collaborates with the individual network time synchronization algorithms that operate at the network level. Consequently, the paper proposes a generic, robust hybrid network time synchronization protocol and analyses its performance using a sensible metric called a mutual consensus. It is shown that the common time is achieved with a limited variance in the networks that operate in the master-slave, distributed or hybrid mode. Provided numerical examples illustrate the behavior of the algorithm and confirm the theoretical findings.

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Series: IEEE access
ISSN: 2169-3536
ISSN-E: 2169-3536
ISSN-L: 2169-3536
Volume: 9
Pages: 84191 - 84203
DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3087861
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 213 Electronic, automation and communications engineering, electronics
Funding: This work was supported in part by the European Defence Agency Project ``Multiband effcient networks for ad hoc networks'' (MAENA) under Grant B-1476-IAP4-GP, and in part by the Academy of Finland 6Genesis Flagship under Grant 318927.
Academy of Finland Grant Number: 318927
Detailed Information: 318927 (Academy of Finland Funding decision)
Copyright information: © The Authors 2021. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. For more information, see