University of Oulu

Mazumder, A.H.; Barnett, J.; Lindberg, N.; Torniainen-Holm, M.; Lähteenvuo, M.; Lahdensuo, K.; Kerkelä, M.; Hietala, J.; Isometsä, E.T.; Kampman, O.; Kieseppä, T.; Jukuri, T.; Häkkinen, K.; Cederlöf, E.; Haaki, W.; Kajanne, R.; Wegelius, A.; Männynsalo, T.; Niemi-Pynttäri, J.; Suokas, K.; Lönnqvist, J.; Niemelä, S.; Tiihonen, J.; Paunio, T.; Palotie, A.; Suvisaari, J.; Veijola, J. Reaction Time and Visual Memory in Connection with Alcohol Use in Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder. Brain Sci. 2021, 11, 688.

Reaction time and visual memory in connection with alcohol use in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder

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Author: Mazumder, Atiqul Haq1; Barnett, Jennifer2; Lindberg, Nina3;
Organizations: 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Cambridge Cognition, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB25 9TU, UK
3Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, 00029 Helsinki, Finland
4Mental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), 00271 Helsinki, Finland
5Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, 70240 Kuopio, Finland
6Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
7Mehiläinen, Pohjoinen Hesperiankatu 17 C, 00260 Helsinki, Finland
8Department of Psychiatry, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland
9Department of Psychiatry, Turku University Hospital, 20521 Turku, Finland
10Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
11Department of Psychiatry, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, 33521 Tampere, Finland
12Social Services and Health Care Sector, City of Helsinki, 00099 Helsinki, Finland
13Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
14Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
15Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm City Council, 11364 Stockholm, Sweden
16Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA
17Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
18Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, 90220 Oulu, Finland
Format: article
Version: published version
Access: open
Online Access: PDF Full Text (PDF, 0.7 MB)
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Language: English
Published: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021
Publish Date: 2021-06-21


The purpose of this study was to explore the association between cognition and hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Cognition is more or less compromised in schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder and alcohol use might aggravate this phenomenon. The study population included 3362 individuals from Finland with diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Hazardous drinking was screened with the AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption) screening tool. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnoses were obtained from national registrar data. Participants performed two computerized tasks from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB) on a tablet computer: The Five-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) or the reaction time (RT) test and the Paired Associative Learning (PAL) test. The association between alcohol use and the RT and PAL tests was analyzed with log-linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. After adjustment for age, education, housing status, and the age at which the respondents had their first psychotic episodes, hazardous drinking was associated with a lower median RT in females and less variable RT in males, while AUD was associated with a poorer PAL test performance in terms of the total errors adjusted scores (TEASs) in females. Our findings of positive associations between alcohol and cognition in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are unique.

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Series: Brain sciences
ISSN: 2076-3425
ISSN-E: 2076-3425
ISSN-L: 2076-3425
Volume: 11
Issue: 6
Article number: 688
DOI: 10.3390/brainsci11060688
Type of Publication: A1 Journal article – refereed
Field of Science: 3124 Neurology and psychiatry
Funding: The work was supported by a grant from the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute, Cambridge, USA (grant agreement nos. 6045290-5500000710 and 6000009-5500000710). The principal author was supported by the Marie Skłodowskaja-Curie Action co-funding of regional, national, and international programs (COFUND) (grant agreement no. 713606) for his doctoral program (MSC-COFUND, I4FUTURE). The principal author was also supported by the Iso-Mällisen Foundation (Iso-Mällisen Säätiö) through a medical grant of EUR 4000 for the year 2019 (grant no. 0400 584622).
EU Grant Number: (713606) I4FUTURE - Novel Imaging and Characterisation Methods in Bio, Medical, and Environmental Research and Technology Innovations
Dataset Reference: The rawdata andmaterials used for this study are available upon request.
Copyright information: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (